Notes & Commentary:
Ver 1. Of
the Grecians against the Hebrews. By the Grecians are many times understood the heathens or pagans, as Acts xiv. 1,
xviii. 4., &c., but here by Grecians (which some translate Hellenists or Grecists) we may understand those
new converted Christians, who had been Jews before, but who had been born in places where the Greek tongue was spoken; as
by the Hebrews, we may understand those converted to the Christian faith, who were of the Jewish race, born, and bred in those
places, where they spoke not Greek, but Syriac, which was then the language of the Jews. This difference is grounded on the
Greek text. --- Their widows were neglected; that is, they seemed less regarded, or less favoured in the daily distributions,
than such as were of the Jewish race, and spoke the language of the Jews, as it was then spoken in Palestine. (Witham) ---
They were most probably both of Jewish origin, and received their different appellations according to the language they spoke.
The former were also frequently called Hellenists. (Calmet) --- It is not certain in what the Greek widows were despised.
Some imagine, that a preference was given to their rivals, in the distribution of offices, that they were appointed to the
meaner charges, and oppressed with too much labour. But it is most natural to suppose, that the complaints regarded the alms
that were distributed, and that the necessities of both parties were not supplied, without the appearance of partiality. (Menochius)
--- For chap. iv. we read neither was there any one among them that wanted; and distribution was made to every man, according
as he had need; and the multitude of believers had but one heart and one soul. But nothing in human institutions is so
good, as not to require occasional reform, owing either to the wickedness or negligence of man. (Estius, in different location)
Ver. 2. And
serve tables. The apostles did not judge it proper for them to be so much employed in managing that common stock, out
of which every one, as they stood in need, were supplied, as to meat, and all other necessities: this took up too much of
their time, which might be better employed in preaching, &c. (Witham) --- Word of God. The most essential duty
of an apostle and bishop, is to announce the word of God. St. Paul would not even baptize, lest it should be a prejudice to
the performance of this great duty, for which he had been sent. Many think, that this ministry of the tables, here signifies,
not only the distribution of corporal nourishment, but the dispensing of the holy Eucharist. As sacred and divine as was this
latter duty, the apostles preferred before it, their obligation of preaching. (Calmet)
Ver. 3. Look
ye out among you seven men, and men of a good repute and character, full of the Holy Ghost. (Witham) --- Diverse
circumstances prove, that they were chosen to be about the altar also. They were to be full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom:
they received the imposition of the apostles' hands, and in them St. Paul requireth, in a manner, the same conditions as in
bishops; all which would not have been necessary for any secular stewardship. See Acts xiii. 3. Immediately after their ordination,
they preached, baptized, disputed, as we see in St. Stephen, &c. &c. Hence St. Ignatius: "it is ours to please by
all means the deacons, who are for the ministry of Jesus Christ; for they are not servitors of meat and drink, but ministers
of the Church of God. For what are deacons but imitators or followers of Christ, ministering to bishops, as Christ to his
Father, and working unto him a clean and immaculate work, even as St. Stephen to St. James? (Ep. ad Tral.)
Ver. 5. By the
names of these seven, it would appear, that they were all Greeks. The reason of this, most probably, is to silence more effectually
all future murmurs, by giving to the aggrieved party protectors of their own nation. (Tirinus) --- The history of Stephen
occurs hereafter. Philip, in the 8th chapter, is called an evangelist, that is, a preacher of the gospel. By Eusebius, Tertullian,
and others, he is called an apostle, that is, an apostolic man. See Lives of the Saints, and Roman Martyrology, June 6. ---
St. Jerome says, his [Philip's] tomb, and that of his four daughters, the prophetesses, were to be seen at Cęsarea, in Palestine.
(Ep. ad Eustoch.) --- Of the rest, except Nicolas, nothing certain is known: their acts have perished. Nicolas, as appears
from the text, was a proselyte, first to Judaism, then to Christianity. St. Epiphanius, and many others, accuse him of being,
by his incontinency, the author, or at least the occasion of the impure sects of Nicoalites and Gnostics. Clement of Alexandria,
and St. Augustine, acquit him of this, and attribute the above heresies to an abuse of some expressions, which he uttered
in his simplicity, and which were susceptible of a good and bad sense. See Baronius and Tillemont.
Ver. 6. And
they, that is, the apostles, laid, or imposed hands upon them. These deacons, therefore, were designed and
ordained for a sacred ministry, and not only to manage the common stock, and temporals of the faithful. This is proved, 1.
By the qualifications required in such men, who were to be full of the Holy Ghost. 2. This is evident from their ecclesiastical
functions mentioned in this book of the Acts, and in the epistles of St. Paul, and by the ancient Fathers. St. Stephen and
St. Philip immediately preached the gospel, as we find in this, and the 8th chapter; they baptized those that were converted.
In the first ages they assisted the bishops and priests at their divine office, and distributed the sacred chalice, or cup
of the holy Eucharist. They succeeded as it were, the Levites of the old law. And in the chief Churches, the deacons, or the
archdeacons in the first ages, had the chief administration of the ecclesiastical revenues, as we read of St. Laurence, at
Rome. (Witham) --- Imposed hands upon them. Notwithstanding the opinions of some, that these deacons were only the
dispensers of corporal food, and therefore very different from the ministers of the altar, who now bear that name, it must
nevertheless be observed, that the most ancient Fathers, Sts. Justin, Irenęus, &c., have acknowledged in them the two-fold
character, and always style them the ministers of the mysteries of God. At the commencement of Christianity, the faithful
generally received the holy Eucharist after a repast, which they took together, in imitation of our Saviour, who instituted
the Sacrament after supper. Now the deacons, who presided over the first tables, after having distributed the corporeal food
to the assembly, ministered also the food of life, which they received from the hand of the bishop. Thus were they ministers
of both the common and sacred tables. Afterwards, they had assistants called sub-deacons, and as among the Gentile converts,
there did not exist that community of goods, as at Jerusalem, their chief employment became to serve the bishop in the oblation
of the holy sacrifice. (Calmet)
Ver. 9. Called
of the Libertines. That is, of the synagogue of those, whose fathers had been made slaves under Pompey, and the Romans,
but who had again been restored to their liberty, and had been made free. There were other synagogues for the
Jews of Cyrene, of Alexandria, &c. No doubt but St. Stephen had converted many of them; and the chiefs of the synagogues,
not being able to dispute with him, or to answer the spirit of wisdom, which directed him, they suborned witnesses.
Ver. 11. Who
should say, that they heard him speaking words of blasphemy against Moses, and against God, against the law and the
temple: that Jesus would destroy the temple. These accusations were forged; for the apostles themselves still frequented
the temple, and Jesus came to fulfil the law, as to its moral precepts. (Witham)
Ver. 13. It
was true that Jesus would destroy the place, and change their traditions, yet they were false witnesses, because they deposed,
that Stephen had made these assertions, which he had not, purposely to excite the Jews to rise up against him, and put him
to death. Besides, had Stephen spoken what was advanced against him, they still would have been false witnesses, for the words
were in fact words of truth, which these suborned men called, words of blasphemy. See ver. 11.
Ver. 15. Saw
his face, as it were the face of an angel. All in the council, or sanhedrim, saw an extraordinary and charming brightness
in the countenance of Stephen, which struck them with admiration and fear. (Witham) --- Angel. His face shone with
a wonderful brightness, an emblem of his interior perfection. In this he was like Moses, whose countenance was so bright,
that the Jews could not steadfastly behold it. By this the beholders had an opportunity of being converted, had they so wished,
or were rendered inexcusable for their neglect. It is also a testimony of the great sanctity of the deacon. This same miracle
is not recorded to have happened to any other but Moses, and our Lord at his transfiguration. (Denis the Carthusian) --- Although
this appearance, in an inferior degree, has been not unfrequently observed in the constant and cheerful countenance of the
martyrs before their persecutors, and of privileged saints, whilst they were happily employed in their intimate communications
 Ver. 1. Gręcorum, elleniston, not ellenon.
See also Acts ix. 29. and xi. ver. 20. See Legh Critica Sacra.
 Ver. 9. Libertinorum, Libertinon, which Greek word
is taken from the Latin. St. Chrysostom, hom. xv. says, apeleutheroi outo kalountai, &c.
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The ordaining of the seven deacons. The zeal of Stephen.
1 And *in those days, the number of the disciples increasing, there arose
a murmuring of the Grecians against the Hebrews, for that their widows were neglected in the daily ministration.
2 Then the twelve calling together the multitude of the disciples, said:
It is not reasonable that we should leave the word of God, and serve tables.
3 Therefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of good reputation,
full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business.
4 But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry
of the word.
5 And the saying pleased all the multitude. And they chose Stephen, a man
full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas, a proselyte
6 These they set before the apostles; and they, praying, imposed hands
7 And the word of the Lord increased, and the number of the disciples was
multiplied very much in Jerusalem: a great multitude also of the priests obeyed the faith.
8 And Stephen, full of grace and fortitude, did great wonders and miracles
among the people.
9 But some of the synagogue, that is called of the Libertines, and of the
Cyreneans, and of the Alexandrians, and of them that were of Cilicia and Asia, rose up disputing with Stephen:
10 And they were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit which spoke.
11 Then they suborned men to say, that they had heard him speaking words
of blasphemy against Moses and against God.
12 They stirred up therefore the people, and the ancients, and the Scribes:
and running together they took him, and brought him to the council.
13 And they set up false witnesses, who said: This man ceaseth not to speak
words against the holy place, and the law.
14 For we have heard him say, that this Jesus, of Nazareth, shall destroy
this place, and shall change the traditions, which Moses delivered to us.
15 And all that sat in the council, looking intently upon him, saw his
face as the face of an Angel.
1: about the year A.D. 33.