Notes & Commentary:
Gentiles, to whom Jeremias was sent, chap. i. 5. What follows regards them, (Calmet) if we except the last chapter.
(Haydock) --- It was thought proper to place these predictions here, though out of their chronological order, to which the
Septuagint have more adhered, placing them after chap. xxv. (Calmet) --- The punishment of the chief enemies of the Jews is
Nechao. He slew Josias, and took all as far as Charcamis, 4 Kings xxiii. Four years after Nabopolasser associated his
son, and sent him to conquer these countries, which he effected, 4 Kings xxiv. 7. (Josephus)
Prepare Egyptians, the enemy is at hand. (Calmet)
Seen. The prophets usually speak as if things were already past. (Worthington)
Away. It will be in vain. (Calmet) --- Nechao went to defend Charcamis, but lost "many myriads in the battle," and
all the country "as far as Pelusium, except Judea." (Josephus, [Antiquities?] x. 7.)
Rivers. He alludes to the Nile. The king of Egypt had a numerous army.
City; Babylon, and every fort which shall oppose my progress. (Calmet)
Men. Soldiers formed one of the principal classes among the Egyptians. (Herodotus ii. 164.) --- Ethiopians.
Hebrew, "Cush," in Lower Egypt, on the Red Sea. --- Lybians. Hebrew, "Phut, another son of Cham, inhabiting the Nome
Phtenethu," Ezechiel xxx. 5., and Nahum iii. 2. --- Lydians. Their situation is not known.
Devour. It seems animated, and eager to slay the victim, Ezechiel xxxix. 17.
Of Egypt; or ye Egyptians, who have been wounded. The balm (Haydock) or resina of Galaad was then very famous,
Genesis xxxvii. 25. (Calmet) --- Egypt thought itself invulnerable, and is derided. Its cure was hopeless, ver. 16. (Worthington)
Egypt, under Apries, about thirty-five years after the former expedition, chap. xliv. 30., and Ezechiel xxix., and
xxxi. This country was invaded the last, ver. 14.
Men. Literally, "man." Hebrew abir, (Haydock) where Apis has been perhaps formed. (Calmet) --- Septuagint,
"Why has Apis (Complutensian omits this word) fled from thee? thy calf, thy chosen one has not remained." (Haydock) --- He
derides the chief idol of Egypt; or he alludes to those who fell at Charcamis, or rather who fled after they had come out
to assist Sedecias, chap. xxxvii. 5., and Ezechiel xxx. 21.
Dove. Hebrew also, "of the destroyer." Septuagint, "Greeks," or Ionians. (Calmet) --- See chap. xxv. 35. (Challoner)
--- Nebuchodonosor came with expedition, or had a dove on his standards. (Menochius)
Pharao. Septuagint add, "Nechao." But Apries seems rather to be meant. (Calmet) --- A. Hebrew shaon hehebir
hamohed. Protestants, "is but a noise, he hath passed the time appointed;" (Haydock) or, "the height which the
crowd (or God, who raised) hath displaced." (Calmet) --- Septuagint retain the original: but the middle word varies
in their copies. (Haydock) --- All the boasts of Pharao ended in smoke. He lost the proper opportunity, and caused his own
kingdom to be laid waste. Syriac, "the disturber, who deranges the times." (Calmet)
He, the destroyer; (ver. 16.) or "it," my word (Haydock) shall surely stand as long as the mountains, (Calmet) yea,
longer than heaven and earth. (Haydock) --- My decrees shall be put in execution in spite of the efforts of man. (Calmet)
Furnish. Literally, "make thyself vessels of captivity," or pack up what thou mayst want there. (Haydock) (Ezechiel
xii. 3., and xxix. 11.) --- Many returned under Cyrus, ver. 26.
Goad her. Nabuchodonosor shall subdue the country.
Hirelings. Apries had thirty thousand Carians, &c., who were defeated by Amasis. (Herodotus ii. 163.)
Brass. Septuagint, "hissing serpent;" lamenting in secret, Isaias xxix. 4. --- Wood. Battle-axes were then used.
Great cities and monarchs shall fall, Zacharias xi. 2., and Ezechiel xxxi. 3. (Calmet)
Above, or "more than locusts," (Haydock) which destroy all herbs where they light.
Visit upon. That is, punish. --- Alexandria. In the Hebrew No; which was the ancient name of the city,
to which Alexander [the Great] gave afterwards the name of Alexandria; (Challoner) or this city was built near Rachotes, the
harbour. "Ammon of No" was rather Diospolis, (Ezechiel xxx. 14.; Septuagint) in the [Nile] Delta, north of Busiris. Ammon
was the chief god adored at No, Nahum iii. 8. Alexandrian Septuagint, "I will revenge myself on Ammon, her son, on Egypt,
or Pharao, and on them." (Haydock) --- Ammon was of their invention, and for this the people were justly punished. It means
also, "a multitude." --- Kings. Chap. xlii. 12. Apries was slain, (chap. xliv. 33.; Calmet) and his two successors
perished miserably by sentence of Cambyses. (Herodotus iii. 14, 16.)
Afterwards, forty years being expired (Ezechiel xxix. 14.) from the time when Apries made his unsuccessful attack on
Cyrene, and his subjects revolted.
Off from all countries, (Calmet) particularly from Egypt; (Haydock) on occasion of which country's deliverance, that
of Jacob is foretold. (Calmet) --- If God would bring the Egyptians back, much more would he deliver the Jews. (Worthington)
Nations of Assyria, Chaldea, &c., chap. xxx. 11. (Calmet)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
A prophecy against Egypt. The Jews shall return from captivity.
1 The word of the Lord, that came to Jeremias, the prophet, against the
2 Against Egypt, against the army of Pharao Nechao, king of Egypt, which
was by the river Euphrates, in Charcamis, whom Nabuchodonosor, the king of Babylon, defeated, in the fourth year *of Joakim,
the son of Josias, king of Juda.
3 Prepare ye the shield and buckler, and go forth to battle.
4 Harness the horses, and get up, ye horsemen: stand forth with helmets,
furbish the spears, put on coats of mail.
5 What then? I have seen them dismayed, and turning their backs, their
valiant ones slain: they fled apace, and they looked not back: terror was round about, saith the Lord.
6 Let not the swift flee away, nor the strong think to escape: they are
overthrown, and fallen down, towards the north, by the river Euphrates.
7 Who is this that cometh up as a flood: and his streams swell like those
8 Egypt riseth up like a flood, and the waves thereof shall be moved as
rivers, and he shall say: I will go up, and will cover the earth: I will destroy the city and its inhabitants.
9 Get ye up on horses, and glory in chariots, and let the valiant men come
forth, the Ethiopians, and the Lybians, that hold the shield, and the Lydians that take, and shoot arrows.
10 For this is the day of the Lord, the God of hosts, a day of vengeance,
that he may revenge himself of his enemies: the sword shall devour, and shall be filled, and shall be drunk with their blood:
for there is a sacrifice of the Lord God of hosts in the north country, by the river Euphrates.
11 Go up into Galaad, and take balm, O virgin daughter of Egypt: in vain
dost thou multiply medicines, there shall be no cure for thee.
12 The nations have heard of thy disgrace, and thy howling hath filled
the land: for the strong hath stumbled against the strong, and both are fallen together.
13 The word that the Lord spoke to Jeremias, the prophet, how Nabuchodonosor,
king of Babylon, should come and strike the land of Egypt:
14 Declare ye to Egypt, and publish it in Magdal, *and let it be known
in Memphis, and in Taphnis: say ye: Stand up, and prepare thyself: for the sword shall devour all round about thee.
15 Why are thy valiant men come to nothing? they stood not: because the
Lord hath overthrown them.
16 He hath multiplied them that fall, and one hath fallen upon another,
and they shall say: Arise, and let us return to our own people, and to the land our nativity, from the sword of the dove.
17 Call ye the name of Pharao, king of Egypt, a tumult time hath brought.
18 As I live (saith the king, whose name is the Lord of hosts) as
Thabor is among the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so shall he come.
19 Furnish thyself to go into captivity, thou daughter inhabitant of Egypt:
for Memphis shall be made desolate, and shall be forsaken and uninhabited.
20 Egypt is like a fair and beautiful heifer: there shall come from
the north one that shall goad her.
21 Her hirelings also that lived in the midst of her, like fatted calves
are turned back, and are fled away together, and they could not stand: for the day of their slaughter is come upon them, the
time of their visitation.
22 Her voice shall sound like brass, for they shall hasten with an army,
and with axes they shall come against her, as hewers of wood.
23 They have cut down her forest, saith the Lord, which cannot be counted:
they are multiplied above locusts, and are without number.
24 The daughter of Egypt is confounded, and delivered into the hand of
the people of the north.
25 The Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, hath said: Behold, I will visit
upon the tumult of Alexandria, and upon Pharao, and upon Egypt, and upon her gods, and upon her kings, and upon Pharao, upon
them that trust in him.
26 And I will deliver them into the hand of them that seek their lives,
and into the hand of Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon, and into the hand of his servants: and afterwards it shall be inhabited
*as in the days of old, saith the Lord.
27 *And thou, my servant, Jacob, fear not and be not thou dismayed, O Israel:
for behold I will save thee from afar off, and thy seed out of the land of thy captivity: and Jacob shall return, and be at
rest, and prosper: and there shall be none to terrify him.
28 And thou, my servant, Jacob, fear not, saith the Lord: because I am
with thee, for I will consume all the nations to which I have cast thee out: but thee I will not consume, but I will correct
thee in judgment, neither will I spare thee, as if thou wert innocent.
2: Year of the World 3397, Year before Christ 607.
14: Jeremias xliv. 1.
26: Ezechiel xxix. 13.
27: Isaias xliii. 1. and xliv. 2.