Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Melchom,
the idol of the Ammonites. (Challoner) --- Gad, to whom a part of their country was assigned. After the captivity of
this tribe, the Ammonites seized the country, regardless of God's appointment. They joined the Chaldeans afterwards; but the
latter could not depend upon them, and sent them into captivity, to revenge the death of Godolias, chap. xli. 2., Sophonias
ii. 8., and Ezechiel xxv. 3. (Calmet) --- They had taken the country as their right, as if all Israel had perished; which
God resents. (Worthington)
Ver. 2. Rabbath;
called Amana, Astarte, and Philadelphia, by Stephanus. --- Possess; returning first from captivity, and subduing the
cities of Ammon, under Hyrcan, 1 Machabees v. 6.
Ver. 3. Hai,
or Je-abarim. Both these cities pertained also to Moab. --- Hedges. Hebrew Gederoth, may be the city Gadara.
--- Melchom, or Moloc, who claimed dominion over this people. If they had used their reason, they must have seen that
he was no god, since the Lord disposed of him as he pleased so long before.
Ver. 4. Delicate.
Hebrew, "rebel or dissolute." Septuagint, "impudent."
Ver. 7. Edom.
This nation was involved in the common ruin, for its barbarity towards God's people, Abdias x., Psalm cxxxvi. 7., and Ezechiel
xxv. 12. --- Theman, renowned formerly for wisdom, Job ii. 11. Yet at the approach of danger, all were confounded.
(Calmet) --- They were only worldly wise. (Worthington)
Ver. 8. Hole.
The territory of Edom, from Eleutheropolis to Elath, is full of such. (St. Jerome, in Abdias) --- Dedan lies south
of the Dead Sea. (Calmet)
Ver. 10. Secrets,
or lurking holes, ver. 8. (Haydock) --- God permits the Chaldeans to plunder all. --- Brethren; Israelites. --- Neighbours;
Ver. 12. Was
not so much. There were some faithful Jews, chap. xxv. 28. (Calmet)
Ver. 13. Bosra,
different from that of Ammon; (chap. xlviii. 24.; Cellar. iii. 14.) though this may be doubtful. Could such a city be unknown?
Ver. 14. Ambassador;
Jeremias: or rather this is a personification of the passions, which would sufficiently prompt the Chaldeans. (Calmet) ---
A good angel might urge them to execute the divine decrees. (Theodoret) --- The greatest armies are thus made use of by Providence,
without approving of their malicious designs.
Ver. 15. Little.
Edom was scarcely known, except in sacred history; and it was forced to receive circumcision by the Machabees.
Ver. 16. Hill.
The mountains were numerous, and full of caverns, ver. 8.
Ver. 17. Desolate.
The few who survived left their ancient territories, which are now a desert, like most of Stony Arabia. (Calmet) --- Hiss,
out of contempt. The punishment was so great as to excite surprise. (Worthington)
Ver. 19. Swelling.
Literally, "pride;" (Haydock) or those banks which the Jordan reaches, when it overflows. They are lined with woods, from
which lions rush to devour the sheep. (Calmet) --- Strong "one's dwelling." (Hebrew) (Haydock) (Zacharias xi. 3.) ---
Over her. What sort of men come to the attack? or, who shall dare to resist them? (Calmet)
Ver. 20. Little.
Chaldean, "chiefs of the people." Tsáir (Haydock) is supposed to have this sense, Micheas v.
2. (Calmet) --- But the weakest of the Chaldeans will be an overmatch for Edom. (Haydock)
Ver. 23. Damascus,
the capital of Syria, Isaias vii. 8. (Worthington) --- It was punished at the same time as the rest. (Josephus) --- Arphad;
Arad, an island near Tyre, or Raphanæ. (Theodoret) --- Syriac, "Rephad....they are troubled from the sea." Nabuchodonosor
left Tyre to invade them. (Calmet) --- As in. The islands of the Mediterranean tremble for themselves, and all Syria
is afraid, hearing of the fall of so many cities and nations.
Ver. 25. They.
Hebrew, Septuagint, and Chaldean add, "not." Why have they not spared this beautiful city? or, why have not its citizens given
it up, to prevent its entire demolition?
Ver. 27. Benadad.
So the kings were usually styled, 3 Kings xv. 8. Septuagint, "the son of Ader."
Ver. 28. Cedar
and Asor were parts of Arabia; which, with Moab, Ammon, Edom, &c., were all brought under the yoke of Nabuchodonosor.
(Challoner) --- We know nothing of the situation of Asor, which means "a court." (Calmet) --- It might be the flying camp
(Theodoret) of the Saracens, (St. Jerome, in Isaias xxi. 16.) who dwelt under tents like the hordes of Tartars, the Ethiopian
emperor, and the mogul. Yet this seems to have been a fixed habitation, ver. 30, 33. --- East; the Desert Arabia, ver.
32. (Calmet) --- Cedar was the son of Ismael, and Asor the chief city of the Agarens. (Worthington)
Ver. 29. About.
The enemy shall terrify them, and plunder all their riches.
Ver. 31. Alone.
We need not fear any resistance. They have no allies. (Calmet) --- The ancient Suevi, of Germany, laid waste the surrounding
countries, that they might appear more terrible. (Cesar iv., and vi.)
Ver. 32. Wind;
throughout the world. --- Round. Chap. ix. 26. (Calmet) --- This the Arabs did, in imitation of Bacchus. (Herodotus
Ver. 34. Elam.
A part of Persia. (Challoner) --- The Elamites had besieged Jerusalem, under Manasses, (Calmet) and are therefore punished.
(Worthington) --- They were subject to Aseradon: Nabuchodonosor subdued them after the other nations, ver. 36. Cyrus set his
countrymen at liberty, (Calmet) and thus began his conquests. (Haydock) --- Pagan historians assert, at random, that they
were before subject to the Medes.
Ver. 38. Thence.
Daniel (viii. 2.) governed at Susa, the capital of Elam, for Baltassar.
Ver. 39. Return.
They joined the standards of Cyrus, and became masters of the East. (Calmet) --- This and similar texts are understood of
the conversion of the Gentiles, Acts ii. 7. (Worthington)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The like desolation of Ammon, of Idumea,
of the Syrians, of the Agarenes, and of the Elamites.
1 Against *the children of Ammon. Thus saith the Lord: Hath Israel no sons? or hath he no heir? Why then hath Melchom inherited
Gad: and his people dwelt in his cities?
2 Therefore, behold the days come, saith the Lord, and I will cause the noise of war to be heard in Rabbath, of the children
of Ammon, and it shall be destroyed into a heap, and her daughters shall be burnt with fire, and Israel shall possess them
that have possessed him, saith the Lord.
3 Howl, O Hesebon, for Hai is wasted. Cry, ye daughters of Rabbath; gird yourselves with haircloth; mourn, and go about
by the hedges; for Melchom shall be carried into captivity, his priests and his princes together.
4 Why gloriest thou in the valleys? thy valley hath flowed away, O delicate daughter, that hast trusted in thy treasures,
and hast said: Who shall come to me?
5 Behold, I will bring a fear upon thee, saith the Lord God of hosts, from all that are round about thee; and you shall
be scattered every one out of one another's sight, neither shall there be any to gather together them that flee.
6 And afterwards I will cause the captives of the children of Ammon to return, saith the Lord.
7 Against Edom.* Thus saith the Lord of hosts: Is wisdom no more in Theman? counsel is perished from her children: their
wisdom is become unprofitable.
8 Flee, and turn your backs, go down into the deep hole, ye inhabitants of Dedan; for I have brought the destruction of
Esau upon him, the time of his visitation.
9 If grape-gatherers had come to thee, would they not have left a bunch? if thieves in the night, they would have taken
what was enough for them.
10 But I have made Esau bare, I have revealed his secrets, and he cannot be hid: his seed is laid waste, and his brethren
and his neighbours, and he shall not be.
11 Leave thy fatherless children: I will make them live; and thy widows shall hope in thee.
12 For thus saith the Lord: Behold, they whose judgment was not to drink of the cup, shall certainly drink; and shalt thou
come off as innocent? thou shalt not come off as innocent, but drinking thou shalt drink.
13 For I have sworn by myself, saith the Lord, that Bosra shall become a desolation: and a reproach, and a desert, and
a curse, and all her cities shall be everlasting wastes.
14 *I have heard a rumour from the Lord, and an ambassador is sent to the nations: Gather yourselves together, and come
against her, and let us rise up to battle.
15 For behold I have made thee a little one among the nations, despicable among men.
16 Thy arrogancy hath deceived thee, and the pride of thy heart; O thou that dwellest in the clifts of the rock, and endeavourest
to lay hold on the height of the hill; *but though thou shouldst make thy nest as high as an eagle, I will bring thee down
from thence, saith the Lord.
17 And Edom shall be desolate: every one that shall pass by it shall be astonished, and shall hiss at all its plagues.
18 *As Sodom was overthrown and Gomorrha, and the neighbours thereof, saith the Lord: there shall not a man dwell there,
and there shall no son of man inhabit it.
19 Behold one shall come up as a lion from the swelling of the Jordan, against the strong and beautiful: for I will make
him run suddenly upon her: and who shall be the chosen one whom I may appoint over her? for who is like to me? and who shall
abide me? *and who is that shepherd that can withstand my countenance?
20 Therefore, hear ye the counsel of the Lord, which he hath taken concerning Edom: and his thoughts, which he hath thought
concerning the inhabitants of Theman: surely the little ones of the flock shall cast them down, of a truth they shall destroy
them with their habitation.
21 The earth is moved at the noise of their fall: the cry of their voice is heard in the Red Sea.
22 Behold he shall come up as an eagle, and fly: and he shall spread his wings over Bosra: and in that day the heart of
the valiant ones of Edom shall be as the heart of a woman in labour.
23 Against Damascus. Emath is confounded, and Arphad: for they have heard very bad tidings, they are troubled as in
the sea: through care they could not rest.
24 Damascus is undone, she is put to flight, trembling hath seized on her: anguish and sorrows have taken her as a woman
25 How have they forsaken the city of renown, the city of joy?
26 Therefore, her young men shall fall in her streets: and all the men of war shall be silent in that day, saith the Lord
27 And I will kindle a fire in the wall of Damascus, and it shall devour the strong holds of Benadad.
28 Against Cedar, and against the kingdoms of Asor, which Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon, destroyed. Thus saith the Lord:
Arise, and go ye up to Cedar, and waste the children of the east.
29 They shall take their tents, and their flocks: and shall carry off for themselves their curtains, and all their vessels,
and their camels: and they shall call fear upon them round about.
30 Flee ye, get away speedily, sit in deep holes, you that inhabit Asor, saith the Lord: for Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon,
hath taken counsel against you, and hath conceived designs against you.
31 Arise, and go up to a nation that is at ease, and that dwelleth securely, saith the Lord: they have neither gates, nor
bars: they dwell alone.
32 And their camels shall be for a spoil, and the multitude of their cattle for a booty: and I will scatter into every
wind them that have their hair cut round, and I will bring destruction upon them from all their confines, saith the Lord.
33 And Asor shall be a habitation for dragons, desolate for ever: no man shall abide there, nor son of man inhabit it.
34 The word of the Lord that came to Jeremias, the prophet, against Elam, in the beginning of the reign of Sedecias, king
of Juda, saying:
35 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: Behold I will break the bow of Elam, and their chief strength.
36 And I will bring upon Elam the four winds from the four quarters of heaven: and I will scatter them into all these winds:
and there shall be no nation to which the fugitives of Elam shall not come.
37 And I will cause Elam to be afraid before their enemies, and in the sight of them that seek their life: and I will bring
evil upon them, my fierce wrath, saith the Lord: and will send the sword after them, till I consume them.
38 And I will set my throne in Elam, and destroy kings and princes from thence, saith the Lord.
39 But in the latter days I will cause the captives of Elam to return, saith the Lord.
1: Jeremias xxvii.; Ezechiel xxv.
7: Year of the World 3417.
14: Abdias i. 1.
16: Abdias i. 4.
18: Genesis xix. 20.
19: Job xli. 1.