Notes & Commentary:
King Herod the Great, surnamed Ascalonite, was a foreigner, but a proselyte to the Jewish religion. St. Jerome. --- This city
is called Bethlehem of Juda, to distinguish it from another Bethlehem, which was situated in the division of the tribe of
Zabulon. (Haydock) Wise men. Both the Latin and Greek text may signify wise philosophers and astronomers, which
is the common exposition. The same word is also many times taken for a magician or soothsayer, as it is applied to Simon,
(Acts viii. 9,) and to Elymas, Acts xiii, ver. 6. and 8. Some ancient interpreters think these very men might have been magicians
before their conversion. See Cornelius a Lapide, &c. --- From the east. Some say from Arabia, others from Chaldea,
others from Persia. Divers interpreters speak of them as if they had been kings, princes, or lords of some small territories.
See Baron. an. i. sect. 29. Tillemont, note 12. on Jesus Christ. The number of these wise men is uncertain. St. Leo, in his
sermons on the Epiphany, speaks of them as if they had been three, perhaps on account of their three-fold offerings. What
is mentioned in later writers as their names, is still of less authority, as Bollandus observed. There are also very different
opinions as to the time that the star appeared to these wise men, whether before Christ's birth, or about the very time he
was born, which seems more probable. The interpreters are again divided as to the year, and day of the year, when they arrived
at Bethlehem, and adored the Saviour of the world. Some think not till two years after Christ's birth. See St. Epiphanius
hær. xxx. num. 29. p. 134. And St. Jerome puts the massacre of the Holy Innocents about that time in his chronicle. But taking
it for granted that the wise men came to Jerusalem and to Bethlehem the same year that Christ was born, it is not certain
on what day of the year they adored him at Bethlehem. It is true the Latin Church, ever since the 4th or 5th age, has kept
the feast of the Epiphany on the 6th day of January. But when it is said in that day's office, This day a star led the
wise men to the manger, it may bear this sense only, this day we keep the remembrance of it; especially since we read
in a sermon of St. Maximus (appointed to be read in the Roman Breviary on the 5th day within the octave of the Epiphany) these
words: What happened on this day, he knows that wrought it; whatever it was, we cannot doubt it was done in favour of us.
The wise men, by the 11th verse, found Jesus at Bethlehem, where his blessed mother was to remain forty days, till the time
of her purification was expired. And it seems most probable that the wise men came to Bethlehem about that time, rather than
within thirteen days after Christ's birth: for had they come so soon after Christ was born, and been directed to go, and make
diligent inquiry at Bethlehem, which was not above five miles from Jerusalem, it can scarcely be imagined that so suspicious
and jealous a prince as Herod was, would have waited almost a month for their return without searching for the new-born king.
But it is likely, being again alarmed by what happened when Jesus was presented in the temple at his mother's purification,
he thereupon gave those cruel and barbarous orders for the massacre of those innocent infants. (Witham)
Ver. 2. We
have seen his star. They knew it to be his star, either by some prophecy among them, or by divine revelation. This
star was some lightsome body in the air, which at last seemed to point to them the very place where the world's Redeemer lay.
We know not whether it guided them during the whole course of their journey form the East to Jerusalem. We read
nothing more in the gospel, but that it appeared to them in the East, and that they saw it again, upon their leaving
Jerusalem to go to Bethlehem. (Witham) --- The wise men, in the Syrian tongue maguscha, are supposed to have come from Stony
Arabia, near the Euphrates. They might have preserved in this country the remembrance of the prophecy of Balaam, which had
announced the coming of the Messias by the emblem of a star, (Numbers xxiv. 17.) which was to arise from Jacob. The star which
appeared then, was the symbol of the star which Balaam had predicted. (Haydock)
Ver. 3. Through
fear of losing his kingdom, he being a foreigner, and had obtained the sovereignty by violence. But why was all Jerusalem
to be alarmed at the news of a king so long and so ardently expected? 1. Because the people, well acquainted with the cruelty
of Herod, feared a more galling slavery. 2. Through apprehension of riots, and of a revolution, which could not be effected
without bloodshed, as the Romans had such strong hold. They had also been so worn down with perpetual wars, that the most
miserable servitude, with peace, was to the Jews an object rather of envy than deprecation. (Haydock)
Ver. 6. And
thou Bethlehem, &c. This was a clear prophecy concerning the Messias, foretold by Micheas; (chap. v. 2,) yet the words
which we read in the evangelist are not quite the same as we find in the prophet, either according to the Hebrew or to the
Greek text of the Septuagint. The chief difference is, that in the prophet we read: And thou Bethlehem art little;
but in the evangelist, thou art not the least. Some answer that the words of the prophet are to be expounded by way
of an interrogation, art thou little? It is certain the following words, both in the prophet and in the gospel, out
of thee shall come forth a leader or a captain, &c. shew that the meaning is, thou art not little. St. Jerome's
observation seems to clear this point: he tells us, that the Jewish priests, who were consulted, gave Herod the sense, and
not the very words of the prophet; and the evangelist, as an historian, relates to us the words of these priests to Herod,
not the very words of the prophet. (Witham) --- The testimony of the chief priests proves that this text of Micheas was even
then generally applied to the Messias, and that to Him alone it must be referred according to the letter. (Haydock)
Ver. 11. And
going into the house. Several of the Fathers in their homilies, represent the wise men adoring Jesus in the stable,
and in the manger. yet others, with St. Chrysostom take notice, that before their arrival, Jesus might be removed into
some little house in Bethlehem. --- Prostrating themselves, or falling down, they adored him, not with a civil worship
only, but enlightened by divine inspiration, they worshipped and adored him as their Saviour and their God. --- Gold, frankincense,
and myrrh. Divers of the ancient Fathers take notice of the mystical signification of these offerings; that by gold
was signified the tribute they paid to him, as to their king; by incense, that he was God; and by myrrh,
(with which dead bodies used to be embalmed) that now he was also become a mortal man. See St. Ambrose lib. 2. in Luc.
chap. ii.; St. Gregory &c. (Witham) --- The Church sings, "hodie stella Magos duxit ad præsepium," but it is not probable
that the blessed Virgin should remain so long in the open stable, and the less so, because the multitude, who hindered Joseph
from finding accommodations either among his relatives or in the public caravansaries, had returned to their own homes. (Estius)
--- They adored Him. Therefore, in the eucharist also, Christ is to be adored. For it is of no consequence under what
appearance he is pleased to give himself to us, whether that of a perfect man, a speechless child as here, or under the appearance
of bread and wine, provided it is evident that he is there; for in whatever manner or place he appears, he is true God, and
for that alone he is to be adored. Frivolous is the objection of certain sectarists, that Christ does not give himself to
us in the blessed eucharist to be adored, but to be eaten. For Christ was not in Bethlehem, nor did he descend from heaven
to be adored: He tells us in the xxth chap. of Matthew, ver. 28, that the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but
to minister; yet he was adored on earth, even while he was in his mortal state, by the magi, by his disciples, by the
blind man that was cured of his blindness, &c. &c. "Let us imitate the magi. Thou seest him not now in the crib, but
on the altar; not a woman holding him, but the priest present, and the Holy Ghost poured out abundantly upon the sacrifice."
(St. Chrysostom, hom. xxiv. in 1 Cor.; Hom. vii. de Sancto Philog.)
Ver. 14. It
is very probable that Joseph, with Jesus and his Mother, remained in some part of Egypt, where the Jews were settled, as at
Alexandria. That many Jews dwelt in Egypt, particularly from the time of the prophet Jeremias, is evident from Josephus, and
also from the first chapter of the second book of Machabees. Mention is also made of them in Acts ii. and Act. iv.
under the name of Alexandrines.
Ver. 15. Out
of Egypt have I called my son. St. Jerome understands these words to be taken out of the prophet Osee, (Chap. xi. 2.)
and granted they might be literally spoken of the people Israel: yet as their captivity in Egypt was a figure of the slavery
of sin, under which all mankind groaned, and as their delivery by Moses was a figure of man's redemption by our Saviour Christ,
so these words in a mystical and spiritual sense apply to our Saviour, who in a more proper sense was the Son of God, than
was the people of Israel. (Witham) --- The application of this passage of the prophet to Christ, whereas in the simple letter
it might appear otherwise, teaches us how to interpret the Old Testament; and that the principal sense is of Christ and his
Ver. 16. By
this example, we learn how great credit we owe to the Church in canonizing saints, and celebrating their holydays: by whose
only warrant, without any word of Scripture, these holy Innocents have been honoured as martyrs, and their holyday kept ever
since the apostles' time, although they died not voluntarily, nor all, perhaps, circumcised, and some even children of pagans.
(St. Augustine, ep. 28. Origen, hom. iii. in diversos.) (Bristow)
Ver. 18. A
voice was heard in Rama. St. Jerome takes Rama, not for the name of any city, but for a high place, as
appears by his Latin translation. (Jeremias xxxi. 15.) But in all Greek copies here in St. Matthew, and in the Septuagint
in Jeremias, we find the word itself Rama, so that it must signify a particular city. Rachel, who was buried at Bethlehem,
is represented weeping (as it were in the person of those desolate mothers) the murder, and loss of so many children: and
Rama being a city not far from Bethlehem, in the tribe of Benjamin, built on a high place, it is said that the cries and lamentations
of these children, and their mothers, reached even to Rama. Cornelius a Lapide on Jeremias xxxi. thinks that these words were
not only applied by the evangelist in a figurative sense, but that the prophet in the literal sense foretold these lamentations.
Ver. 23. He
shall be called a Nazarite, or a Nazarene. Jesus was called a Nazarite, from the place where he was bred
up in Galilee; and the Christians by the Jews were sometimes called Nazarenes, from Jesus of Nazareth. The evangelist
would shew that this name, which the Jews through contempt gave to Christ and his disciples, had an honourable signification:
and that this title was given in the predictions of the prophets to the Messias. But where, or in what prophet? For we find
not the words exactly in any of the prophets. To this St. Chrysostom answers, that St. Matthew took it from some prophetical
writings that have been lost. St. Jerome gives two other answers: first, that the word Nazarene, from the Hebrew Nezer,
signifies separated, and distinguished from others by virtue and sanctity: and so some that were particularly consecrated,
and devoted to the service of God, were called Nazareans, as Joseph, (Deuteronomy xxxiii. 16,) Sampson, (Judges xvi.
17,) &c. Thus a Nazarene signifies one that is holy: and all the prophets, says St. Jerome, foretold that Christ
should be holy. Therefore also it was that St. Matthew did not cite any one prophet, but the prophets in general. The second
answer is, that a Nazarean (if derived from the Hebrew Netser) signifies a flower, or bud; and
so in the prophet Isaias, chap. xi. ver. 1) it is foretold of the Messias, that a flower shall ascend from the root of
David. (Witham) --- The reason why Jesus is called of Nazareth, and not of Bethlehem, is, because he was educated
there, and was generally supposed to have been born there. Hence he was called the Galilean; and the people argued from that
circumstance, that he was not the Messias, nor even a prophet, saying, Can the Christ come from Galilee? Search the Scriptures,
and see that out of Galilee a prophet riseth not. (John vii. 52.) Again, in Nazareth the word was made flesh, though in
Bethlehem he was produced to the world; and our Lord gives himself the same title, when he addressed Saul. I am Jesus of
Nazareth, whom thou persecutest. (Acts xxii.) He remained at Nazareth till he was about 30 years of age. (Haydock)
 Ver. 1. Magi, oi Magoi.
 Ver. 11. Aurum, &c. Pulcherrime, says St. Jerome on this place,
Juvencus Munerum Sacramenta comprehendit,
Thus, Aurum, Myrrham, Regique, Hominique, Deoque,
Dona ferunt. See St. Ambrose in Luc. lib. ii. chap. ii.; St. Gregory hom.
x. in Evang. &c.
 Ver. 15. Ex Ægypto vocai filium meum. In the Septuagint ta
tekna autou, filios ejus.
 Ver. 18. Vox in Excelso audita est. Jeremias xxxi. 15.
 Ver. 23. Nazaræus, nazoraios. St. Chrysostom, hom.
ix. in Matt. p. 66. Ed. Latinæ, Multa ex Propheticis periere monumenta. --- St. Hieron. [St. Jerome] in Matt. pluraliter Prophetas
vocans, ostendit se non verba de Scripturis sumpsisse, sed sensum: Nazaræus Sanctus interpretatur, Sanctum autem Dominum futurum,
omnis Scriptura commemorat. Possumus et aliter dicere, quod etiam iisdem verbis juxta Hebraicam veritatem in Isaia Scriptum
sit. chap. xi. ver. 1. Exiet Virgo de radice Jesse, et Nazaræus de radice ejus conscendet.
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The offerings of the wise men: the flight into Egypt:
the massacre of the innocents: and the return from Egypt.
1 Now *when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Juda, in the days of
king Herod, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem.
2 Saying: Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen
his star in the east, and we are come to adore him.
3 And Herod the king hearing this, was troubled, and all Jerusalem
4 And assembling together all the chief priests, and the scribes of the
people, he inquired of them where Christ should be born.
5 But they said to him: In Bethlehem of Juda: For so it is written by
6 *And thou Bethlehem, the land of Juda, art not the least among the
princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come forth the ruler, who shall rule my people Israel.
7 Then Herod privately calling the wise men, inquired of them diligently
the time of the star's appearing to them:
8 And sending them into Bethlehem, said: Go, and search diligently after
the child; and when you have found him, bring me word again, that I also may come and adore him.
9 And when they had heard the king, they went their way: and behold the
star which they had seen in the east, went before them, until it came and stood over where the child was.
10 And seeing the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.
11 And entering into the house, they found the child with Mary his mother,
and falling down they adored him: *and opening their treasures, they offered him gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh.
12 And having received an answer in sleep, that they should not return
to Herod, they went back another way into their own country.
13 And when they were departed, behold an angel of the Lord appeared
in sleep to Joseph, saying: Arise, and take the child and his mother, and fly into Egypt, and be there until I shall tell
thee. For it will come to pass that Herod will seek the child to destroy him.
14 Who, rising up, took the child and his mother by night, and retired
15 And he was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled
which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying: *Out of Egypt have I called my son.
16 Then Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise men, was exceeding
angry, and sending, killed all the men children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the borders thereof, from two years old
and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.
17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremias the prophet,
18 *A voice in Rama was heard, lamentation and great mourning: Rachel
bewailing her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.
19 But when Herod was dead, behold an angel of the Lord appeared in sleep
to Joseph in Egypt,
20 Saying: Rise, and take the child and his mother, and go into the land
of Israel: for they are dead who sought the life of the child.
21 Who, rising up, took the child, and his mother, and came into the
land of Israel.
22 But hearing that Archelaus reigned in Judea in the room of Herod,
his father, he was afraid to go thither: and being warned in sleep, retired into the parts of Galilee.
23 And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be
fulfilled, what was said by prophets: That he shall be called a Nazarene.
1: Year of the World 4000, being four years before the common
account called Anno Domini.[A.D., in the year of the Lord]; Luke ii. 7.
6: Micheas v. 2.; John vii. 42.
11: Psalm lxxi. 10.
14: Osee xi.
18: Jeremias xxxi. 15.