1 Corinthians x.
Notes & Commentary:
Our Fathers, the Jews, were all under the cloud. He means, when God conducted the camp of the Israelites, in
the day-time by a cloud, and in the night by a pillar of fire. (Exodus xiii. 21.) (Witham) --- In Moses. Under the
conduct of Moses they received baptism in figure, by passing under the cloud and through the sea: and they partook of the
body and blood of Christ in figure, by eating of the manna, (called here a spiritual food, because it was a
figure of the true bread which comes down from heaven) and drinking the water miraculously brought out of the rock, called
here a spiritual rock; because it was also a figure of Christ. (Challoner) --- Were baptized in the cloud, and in
the sea, figuratively, these being figures of baptism in the new law. As Moses, who delivered them from the slavery of
Egypt, was a figure of Christ, who came to deliver mankind from the slavery of sin. (Witham)
Ver. 3-4. All
eat the same spiritual food, to wit, the manna, which seemed to come from heaven, and was a figure of the eucharist,
the spiritual food of our souls. --- All drank the same spiritual drink, and....rock that followed them, by
which is understood the stream of water, that came miraculously out of the rock struck by Moses, and which is said to have
followed them, because it ran plentifully through their camp. --- And the rock was Christ, a figure of Christ; for
all these things (ver. 11.) happened to them in figure. (Witham)
Ver. 5. God
was not well pleased, &c. Of 600,000, only Josue and Caleb entered the land of promise; the rest were destroyed,
and perished in the wilderness. Their punishment ought to be an admonition to all to avoid such sins of idolatry, fornication,
Ver. 6. In
a figure of us. That is, this was done and written to teach us, what we may expect, if we imitate the murmurs, infidelities,
ingratitude, and disobedience of the Hebrew people. Unless we renounce our irregular desires, unless we mortify our passions,
baptism and communion will prove our greater condemnation. The greatest graces are but subjects of alarm, unless our life
correspond with them.
Ver. 9. As
some of them tempted Christ. This cannot but be understood of Christ, as God. (Witham)
Ver. 11. Upon
whom the ends of the world are come. The last age of the world, which St. John calls the last hour. (Witham)
Ver. 12. Take
heed lest he fall. This regards the doctors and teachers in the new Church of Corinth; who, relying upon their own learning,
did not think themselves weak, and presuming too much upon their own strength, exposed themselves to the danger of falling.
See St. Chrysostom and St. Augustine, de dono. Persev. --- Self-diffidence is the foundation of our strength. We prevent many
dangerous falls when we keep close to the earth by humility.
Ver. 13. Let
no temptation  take hold on you. Or, no temptation hath taken hold of you, or come upon you as yet, but
what is human, or incident to man. (Challoner) --- The sense of these words is obscure: we may expound them by way of prayer,
let no temptation, but such as are of human frailty, and not hard to be overcome, happen to you. See the Greek text. --- Will
make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it. The literal signification of the Latin, compared with
the Greek is, that God will bring you off, and make you escape out of those dangers, when you are tempted. (Witham) --- The
most violent temptations are occasions of merit and triumph to such as are in the hands of God; whilst the lightest are snares
and a deep abyss to such as are in their own hands.
Ver. 14. There
are various kinds of idolatry. It is the perfection of Angels never to err: it is a human imperfection to fall into error,
but a diabolical crime, so to love our error, as to divide the Church by schism, or leave it by heresy: this love of self
is the most dangerous idolatry.
Ver. 16. The
chalice of benediction, &c. Which the priests bless or consecrate, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
And the bread which we break, (so called because of the outward appearance of bread) is it not the partaking or
communion of the body of the Lord? See St. Chrysostom here, hom. xxiv. p. 396. and p. 400. See also the Annotations,
Matthew xxvi. 26. (Witham) --- Here the apostle puts them in mind of the partaking of the body and blood of Christ in the
sacred mysteries, and becoming thereby one mystical body with Christ. From whence he infers, (ver. 21.) that they who are
made partakers with Christ, by the eucharistic sacrifice, and sacrament, must not be made partakers with devils, by eating
of the meats sacrificed to them. (Challoner)
Ver. 17. We
being many, are one bread. Or, as it may be rendered, agreeably both to the Latin and Greek, because the bread is one,
all we, being many, are one body, who partake of that one bread. For it is by our communicating with Christ and with one
another, in this blessed Sacrament, that we are formed into one mystical body; and made, as it were, one bread, compounded
of many grains of corn, closely united together. (Challoner) --- From the sacrament of the real body of Christ in the eucharist,
he passeth to the effect of this sacrament, which is to unite all those who partake of it, as members of the same mystical
body of Christ, which is his Church: and from hence he presently draws this consequence, that such as are members of that
body, of which Christ is the head, cannot have any communication with idolaters, or with those that offer sacrifices to idols
and devils. (Witham)
Ver. 18. Behold
Israel, according to the flesh. That is, the people that were the offspring of Israel or Jacob. Are not these they
who offered sacrifices to the true God, and eat of the sacrifices, which were offered on his altars, and by
offering to him such sacrifices, acknowledged him to be their God, and the only true God: and so you, if you partake, and
eat of the sacrifices of idolaters, and of what they tell you was offered to their idols, you seem at least, to join with
them in acknowledging, and paying a reverence to their idols, which are devils: and you cannot be partakers of the table
of the Lord, and of the table of devils. --- Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? that is, how dare we provoke our
Lord, who is a jealous God, and will admit of no rival, by partaking of sacrifices offered to false gods? how dare we thus
contemn his power, as if we were stronger than he, or that he could not punish us? (Witham)
Ver. 19. What
then? do I say, &c. He puts this objection, as if it were contradictory to what he had taught before, (chap. viii.
ver. 4.) that an idol is nothing, &c. but he answers this objection by saying that all things, that is,
all meats are lawful in themselves, but not always expedient, nor edifying, when they give scandal to weak brethren,
or when the infidels themselves think that such as eat things offered to idols, join with them in honouring their idols. (Witham)
--- The meaning of this passage is: whilst I advise you to abstain from eating of any thing consecrated to idols, I do not
advise you as supposing that these offerings have any power in themselves to defile your souls, in the same manner as by eating
of the body and blood of Christ we receive strength to overcome our spiritual enemies. St. Paul here anticipates an objection
that might be made by some to whom he was writing. (Estius)
Ver. 21. In
all this discourse, a comparison is instituted between the Christian host and oblation, its effects, conditions and properties,
with the altars, hosts, sacrifices and immolations of the Jews and Gentiles; which the apostle could not have done, had there
not been a proper sacrifice in the Christian worship. The holy Fathers teach the same with the ancient Councils. This in the
council of Nice: The lamb of God laid upon the altar. Conc. Ephes., The unbloody service of the sacrifice. In
St. Cyril of Alexandria, in Conc. Ephes., Anath. 11, The quickening holy sacrifice; the unbloody host and victim. Tertullian,
de coron. milit., The propitiatory sacrifice both for the living and the dead. This Melchisedech did most singularly
prefigure in his mystical oblation of bread and wine; this also according to the prophecy of Malachias, shall continue from
the rising to the setting sun, a perpetual substitute for all the Jewish sacrifices; and this, in plain terms, is called the
Mass, by St. Augustine, Serm. ccli. 91.; Conc. Cartha. ii. c. 3. 4. c. 84. Milevit. 12.; St. Leo, ep. 81. 88. chap. 2.; St.
Gregory, lib. ii. ep. 9. 92. &c. &c. See next chapter ver. 24.
Ver. 23. All
things are lawful. This is the same sentiment he has expressed in chap. vi. ver. 12. and in chap. viii. ver. 8. 9. wherein
he teaches us, that on some occasions it is necessary to abstain even from things in themselves lawful, as in the case of
meats consecrated to idols. (Calmet) --- Two excellent rules that can serve as guides on these occasions, are the edification
of the Church, and the spiritual good of our neighbour. Without the aid of these guides, we go astray ourselves and decoy
others, in doing what the letter of the law permits, but what the spirit of the law, charity, forbids.
Ver. 27. Eat
of any thing, &c. Here at length St. Paul prescribes them a rule by which they were to govern themselves, as to meats
that they met with. Buy and eat any thing sold in the market, or of any thing that you meet with at the table of infidels,
when they invite you, for all are the Lord's creatures, and may be taken with thanksgiving, as we ought to take
whatsoever we eat. --- But if any man say, this hath been sacrificed to idols, do not eat of it for his sake, &c.
And why must they not then eat of it? because either he is an infidel that says it: and then by saying so, he may mean that
they who eat it, ought to eat it in honour of their gods. Or if a weak brother says so, he thereby signifies, that his conscience
judges it not lawful to be eaten; so that in one case, you seem to consent that things are to be taken in honour of idols:
in the other, you give offence to your weak brother: and I would have you to be without offence, both to Jews
and Gentiles; and not to think it enough that you can eat such things with thanksgiving. It may be asked here why the
apostle should not absolutely forbid them ever to eat any thing offered to idols, as this seems a thing absolutely forbidden
in the council of Jerusalem? (Acts xv. 23.) To this some answer, that the apostle here expounds the true sense of that decree,
which was only to be understood, when eating such meats gave scandal. Others say, the prohibition was only for a short time,
and now was out of date. Others take notice, that the prohibition was not general, nor for all places, but only for the new
converted Gentiles that were at Antioch, or in Syria and Cilicia, as specified in the decree. (Witham)
Ver. 29. For
why is my liberty? The meaning of this passage is, that though we ought, on some occasions, to abstain from things in
themselves lawful, yet, that on other occasions we are by no means obliged to it, particularly when our brother is not thoroughly
instructed on that head. (Theophylactus)
 Ver. 13. Tentatio vos non apprehendat. In almost all Greek
copies, non apprehendit in pręterito, ouk eilephen. Which reading is also in divers ancient Latin interpreters,
as if he puts them in mind that hitherto they had not suffered any great temptations or persecutions. Faciet cum tentatione
proventum, is not the saem as progressum, or utilitatem, by the Greek, but that they should escape out of it. sun
to peirasme kai ten ekbasin.
 Ver. 16. Calix benedictionis cui, (or as it is in the Greek) quem benedicimus.
See St. Chrysostom, hom. xxiv. No Catholic now-a-days can declare his faith of the real presence in clearer terms than St.
Chrysostom hath in this, and other places: oti touto en to poterio on, ekeino esti, to apo tes pleuras reusan,
&c. He calls the eucharist, thusian, a sacrifice.
Bible Text & Cross-references:
By the example of the Israelites he shews that we are
not to build too much upon favours received; but avoid their sins; and fly from the service of idols, and from things offered
1 For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that our fathers were
all *under the cloud, and all passed through the **sea:
2 And all in Moses were baptized, in the cloud, and in the sea:
3 *And they all eat the same spiritual food:
4 *And all drank the same spiritual drink: (and they drank of the spiritual
rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ.)
5 But with most of them God was not well pleased: *for they were overthrown
in the desert.
6 Now these things were done in a figure of us, that we should not covet
evil things, *as they also coveted.
7 Neither become ye idolaters, as some of them: as it is written: *The
people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.
8 Neither let us commit fornication, *as some of them committed fornication,
and there fell in one day three and twenty thousand.
9 Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them tempted, and perished
10 *Neither do you murmur, as some of them murmured, and were destroyed
by the destroyer.
11 Now all these things happened to them in figure: and they are written
for our correction, upon whom the ends of the world are come.
12 Wherefore let him that thinketh himself to stand, take heed lest he
13 Let no temptation take hold on you, but such as is human: and God
is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able: but will make also with temptation issue,
that you may be able to bear it.
14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from the service of idols.
15 I speak as to wise men: judge ye yourselves what I say.
16 The chalice of benediction which we bless, is it not the communion
of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord?
17 For we being many, are one bread, one body, all who partake of one
18 Behold Israel, according to the flesh; are not they, who eat of the
sacrifices, partakers of the altar?
19 What then? Do I say, that what is offered in sacrifice to idols, is
any thing? Or that the idol is any thing?
20 But the things which the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils,
and not to God. And I would not that you should be made partakers with devils: you cannot drink the chalice of the Lord, and
the chalice of devils:
21 You cannot be partakers of the table of the Lord, and of the table
22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he? *All
things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient.
23 All things are lawful for me, but all things do not edify.
24 Let no man seek his own, but that which is another's.
25 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, eat: asking no question, for conscience
26 *The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.
27 If any of the unbelievers invite you, and you be willing to go; eat
of any thing that is set before you, asking no question, for conscience sake.
28 But if any man say: This hath been sacrificed to idols: do not eat
of it for his sake that told it, and for conscience sake.
29 Conscience, I say, not thy own, but the other's. For why is my liberty
judged by another man's conscience?
30 If I partake with thanksgiving, why am I evil spoken of for that for
which I give thanks?
31 *Therefore, whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do; do
all things for the glory of God.
32 Give no offence to the Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church
33 As I also please all men in all things, not seeking that which is
profitable to myself, but to many; that they may be saved.
1: Exodus xiii. 21.; Numbers ix. 21. --- ** Exodus xiv. 22.
3: Exodus xvi. 15.
4: Exodus xvii .6.; Numbers xx. 11.
5: Numbers xxvi. 64. and 65.
6: Psalm cv. 14.
7: Exodus xxxii. 6.
8: Numbers xxi. 5. and 6.
10: Numbers xi. 1. and xiv. 1.
22: 1 Corinthians vi. 12.
26: Psalm xxiii. 1.; Ecclesiasticus xvii. 31.
31: Colossians iii. 17.