Notes & Commentary:
Jesus Christ was led by the Holy Ghost, immediately after his baptism, into the desert, to prepare, by fasting and prayer,
for his public ministry, and to merit for us by his victory over the enemy of our salvation, force to conquer him also ourselves.
By this conduct, he teaches all that were to be in future times called to his ministry, how they are to retire into solitude,
in order to converse with God in prayer, and draw down the blessing of heaven upon themselves and their undertaking. What
treasures of grace might we expect, if, as often as we receive any of the sacraments, we were to retire within ourselves,
and shut out, for a time, the world and its cares. Then should we come prepared to withstand temptation, and should experience
the divine assistance in every difficulty through life. The life of man is a warfare on earth. It was not given us, says St.
Hilary, to spend it in indolence, but to wage a continual war against our spiritual enemies. In the greatest sanctity there
are often the greatest and most incessant trials; for Satan wishes nothing so much as the fall of the saints. (Haydock) ---
By these trials, we learn the strength we have received from above, we are preserved from self-complacency and pride in the
gifts of heaven; we confirm the renunciation we made in baptism of the devil, and all his works and pomps; we become stronger,
and better prepared for future attacks, and are feelingly convinced of the dignity to which we have been raised, and of which
the enemy of souls endeavours all he can to deprive us. St. Chrysostom hom. xiii. Both St. John the Baptist and our divine
Master, by retiring into the wilderness for contemplation, prayer, fasting and suffering, have given a sanction and an example
to those holy men called hermits, who have taken shelter in their sanctified retreats against the dangers of the world. (Bristow)
Ver. 2. Jesus
wished to manifest a certain corporeal weakness, arising from his continued fast, that the devil might venture to tempt him;
and after a fast of 40 days and 40 nights he was hungry. (Haydock) --- Christ was well acquainted with the thoughts of the
wicked fiend, and his great desire of tempting or trying him. The devil had learnt that he was come into the world from the
songs of the angels at his birth, and from the mouth of the shepherds and of St. John the Baptist. To fast 40 days without
being hungry, was certainly far above the strength of man, but to be hungry at any time is inconsistent with God; for which
reason our blessed Saviour, that he might not manifestly declare his divinity, was afterwards hungry. (St. Hilary) --- On
this example, as well as that of Moses and Elias, who also fasted 40 days, the fast of Lent was instituted by the apostles,
and is of necessity to be observed according to the general consent of the ancient Fathers. St. Jerome (ep. liv. ad Marcel.)
says, we fast 40 days, or make one Lent in a year, according to the tradition of the apostles. St. Augustine (serm. lxix.)
says, by the due observance of Lent, the wicked are separated from the good, infidels from Christians, heretics from Catholics.
Our Saviour fasted 40 days, not because he stood in need of it, as we do, to subject the unruly members of the body, which
lust against the spirit, but to set an example for our imitation. (Haydock) --- Another reason might be, to prevent the captious
remarks of the Jews, who might object that he had not yet done what the founder of their law, Moses, and after him Elias,
had done. (Palacius in Mat.)
Ver. 3. "And
the tempter coming," O peirazon, who looked upon this hunger as a favourable moment to tempt him, and to
discover if he were truly the Son of God, as was declared at his baptism, desired Jesus to change by a miracle the stones
into bread, to appease his hunger and to recover his strength. (Haydock) --- By this we are taught, that amidst our greatest
austerities and fasts, we are never free from temptation. But if your fasts, says St. Gregory, do not free you entirely from
temptations, they will at least give you strength not to be overcome by them. (St. Thomas Aquinas.) The tempter is supposed
to have appeared in a human form, and the whole temptation to have been merely external, like that which took place with our
first parents in Paradise. It would have been beneath the perfection of Christ, to have allowed the devil the power of suggesting
wicked thoughts to his mind. (Jansenius. p. 107.) Had Jesus Christ converted the stones into bread, the devil, according to
St. Jerome, would have thence inferred that he was God. But it was Christ's intention to overcome the proud fiend rather by
humility than power. (St. Thomas Aquinas) Thus, if the first Adam fell from God by pride, the second Adam has effectually
taught us how to overcome the devil by humility. (Haydock)
Ver. 4. Man
liveth not by bread only. The words were spoken of the manna. (Deuteronomy viii. 3.) The sense in this place is, that
man's life may be supported by any thing, or in any manner, as it pleaseth God. (Witham) --- St. Gregory upon this passage
says: if our divine Redeemer, when tempted by the devil, answered in so mild a manner, when he could have buried the wicked
tempter in the bottom of hell, ought not man, when he suffers any thing from his fellow man, rather to improve it to his advantage,
than to resent it to his own ruin. Man consists of soul and body; his body is supported by bread, his soul by the word of
God; hence the saying, "Lex est cibus animę." (Mat. Polus.)
Ver. 5. In the
text of St. Luke this temptation is the third: but most commentators follow the order of St. Matthew. In Palestine, all buildings
had a flat roof, with a balustrade or a parapet. It was probably upon the parapet that the devil conveyed Jesus. The three
temptations comprise the three principal sources of sin: 1. sensuality; 2. pride; and 3. concupiscence. 1st epistle John ii.
16. We may hope to conquer the first by fasting and confidence in divine Providence; the second by humility; the third by
despising all sublunary things, as unworthy a Christian's solicitude. (Haydock) --- the devil took him, &c.
If we ask in what manner this was done, St. Gregory answers, that Christ might permit himself to be taken up, and transported
in the air by the devil, he that afterwards permitted himself to be tormented, and nailed to a cross by wicked men, who are
members of the devil. Others think the devil only conducted him from place to place. The text of St. Luke favours this exposition,
when it is said, the devil led him to Jerusalem, to a high mountain, &c. (Witham)
Ver. 6. Heretics,
says St. Augustine, quote Scriptures, as the devil does here, in a wrong and forced sense; the Church cites them, like Jesus
Christ, in their true sense, and to confute their falsehood. (Cont. lit. Petil. lib. ii. chap. 51.) It is on this account,
that the Catholic Church wishes persons who come to the study of the most mysterious and difficult book ever published, should
bring with them some preparation of mind and heart; convinced that the abuse of the strongest and best food may be converted
into deadly poison. The promoters of Bible societies have published in Ireland a tract to encourage the universal perusal
of the Scriptures, as the sole rule of faith. In this they give not only a mutilated and corrupt version of the letter of
his late Holiness Pius VI. to the now archbishop of Florence, (to be seen at the head of this edition of the Bible) but certain
letters from German Jansenists, who are described as being good Catholics. (Haydock)
Ver. 8. Shewed
him all the kingdoms of the world, and their glory; and as St. Luke says, in a moment of time. We cannot comprehend
how this could be done from any mountain, or seen with human eyes. Therefore many think it was by some kind of representation;
or that the devil shewing a part, by words set forth the rest. (Witham) --- He shewed him the different climates in which
each country was situated. (St. Chrysostom)
Ver. 9. All
these will I give thee. The father of lies here promised what was not his to give. For though he be called the prince
of this world, (John xii. 31,) meaning of the wicked, who wilfully make themselves his slaves; yet so restrained is the devil's
power, that he could not go into the swine till Christ permitted it. (Matthew viii. 31.) (Witham) --- What arrogance! what
pride! The devil promises earthly kingdoms, whilst Jesus promises a heavenly kingdom to his followers. (St. Remigius) Behold
the pride of his heart; as he formerly wished to make himself God, so now he wishes to assume to himself divine honours. (St.
Ver. 10. Jesus
Christ does not here cite the words, but the substance of the text. (Deuteronomy v. 7. and 9; vi. 13; x. 20.) --- It is remarkable
that our Lord bore with the pride and insolence of the devil, till he assumed to himself the honour due to God alone. (St.
Ver. 11. Then
the devil having exhausted all his artifices, left him for a time, as St. Luke remarks; whence we are to learn, that after
we have resisted with success, we are not to think ourselves secure, but avail ourselves of the truce to return thanks to
God for the victory, and to prepare for fresh combats, especially by fortifying ourselves with the bread of angels in the
holy communion. The temptations of Jesus Christ are to us a subject both of consolation and instruction. By example
he has taught us how to fight and to conquer. The struggle may be painful; but angels, as well as God, witness our struggle,
ready to crown our victory. (Haydock)
Ver. 12. Jesus
then left the wilderness, and passed a few day on the banks of the Jordan, affording his holy precursor an opportunity of
bearing repeated testimony of him and of his divine mission, as we read in the first chap. of St. John, and then retired into
Upper Galilee to avoid the fury of the Jews. There were two Galilees, that of the Jews and that of the Gentiles; this latter
was given by the king of Tyre to king Solomon. (St. Jerome) This conduct of Jesus Christ, shews that on some occasions it
is not only lawful, but advisable, to flee from persecution. (St. Chrysostom) --- Jesus Christ enters more publicly on his
mission, and about to occupy the place of his precursor, the baptist, he chooses Galilee for the first theatre of his ministry,
the place assigned by the ancient prophets. The Pharisees had prevailed upon Herod to arrest the baptist, nor could their
hatred be less to Jesus Christ, who drew a still greater concourse of disciples after him.
Ver. 13. Nazareth
was situated in Lower Galilee; and Capharnaum, a maritime town, in Higher Galilee. According to the historian, Josephus, it
did not belong to Herod, the tetrarch, who sent the baptist to confinement, but to Philip, the tetrarch, his brother. (Calmet)
--- He leaves Nazareth for good and all, and retires to Capharnaum, a very flourishing and much frequented emporium, both
for the Jews and Gentiles. Here he makes his chief residence, a place well calculated for his preaching, being on the limits
of both Galilees, although he made frequent excursions through Galilee to disseminate his doctrines. (Syn. crit.)
Ver. 15. St.
Matthew has omitted in this place part of the prophecy, (Isaias ix.) because it was not to his purpose. He has likewise given
us the mystical, though still true, interpretation of the prophecy, which was written in the first instance to foretell the
deliverance of Jerusalem from Senacherib, in the time of Ezechias. (1 Kings, xix.) (Jansenius)
Ver. 16. And
a light is risen, &c. This light, foretold by the prophet Isaias, (chap. ix, ver. 1,) was our Saviour Christ,
the light of the world, who now enlightened them by his instructions, and by his grace. (Witham) --- Thus when the morning
star has gone by and disappeared, the sun rises and diffuses its light to mortals, who rejoice that the darkness of night
is removed from the earth. (Jansenius)
Ver. 17. Jesus
began not to preach till St. John had announced his coming to the world, that the dignity of his sacred person might thus
be manifested, and the incredulous Jews be without excuse. If after the preaching of St. John, and his express testimony of
the divinity of our Redeemer, they could still say: thou givest testimony of thyself; thy testimony is not true: what would
they not have said, if, without any precursor, he had, all on a sudden, appeared amongst them. He did not begin to preach
till St. John was cast into prison, that the people might not be divided. On this account also St. John wrought no miracle,
that the people might be struck with the miracles of our Saviour, and yield their assent to him. (St. Chrysostom, hom. 14.)
--- It may here be remarked, how different were the motives of the prophets from those which the baptist and Christ made use
of to exhort to repentance. The former menaced evil, and held out a promise of good, but the good or evil was temporal. St.
John begins his exhortations with the threat of eternal punishments---but Christ sweetens the hardships of penance by reminding
us of the reward. "The kingdom of heaven is at hand." (Jansenius)
Ver. 18. Jesus
wished not only to prove that the establishment of his religion was heavenly, but also to humble the pride of man; and therefore
he did not choose orators and philosophers, but fishermen, says St. Jerome. Cyprian, the eloquent orator, was called to the
priesthood; but before him was Peter, the fisherman. (St. Chrysostom) --- Jesus saw two brothers, &c. If we compare
what is related by the evangelists, as to the time that St. Peter and St. Andrew became Christ's disciples, we shall find
Andrew, who had been a disciple of St. John Baptist, to have brought to Christ his brother Simon. (John i, ver. 40.)
But at that time they staid not with him, so as to become his disciples, and to remain with him as they afterwards did, by
quitting their boat, their nets, their fishing, and all they had in the world, which is here related; and by St. Mark, (chap.
i,) and by St. Luke, chap. v. (Witham)
Ver. 19. Jesus
Christ here makes an allusion to the prior occupation of his apostles. David, in his Psalms, makes similar allusions to his
former occupation of shepherd: "He took him from the flocks of sheep, he brought him from following the ewes big with young,
to feed Jacob, his servant, and Israel, his inheritance." (Psalm lxxvii. ver. 70.) (Menochius)
Ver. 21. It
was objected by the ancient enemies of Christianity, Porphyrius, Julian the apostate, and others, that Christ chose for his
apostles simple and ignorant men, easy to be imposed upon, and not such as would have been on their guard against deception;
thus converting that into an argument against the doctrine of Jesus Christ, which of all other circumstances most solidly
and forcibly establishes its divinity and authority. (Salmeron. trac. 25.) --- If Christ had persuaded the ignorant apostles
only, there might be some room for such an argument. But if these 12 ignorant men triumphed over the learning, the eloquence,
the sophisms of the philosophers themselves, over the strong arm of power in the hands of tyrants, and finally over the devils
and passions of men, which were the last to give up the combat against a doctrine that established itself on their ruin, then
we may conclude, with St. Paul, that it was wisdom in God to choose the weak things of this world to confound the strong---the
foolish and the things that are not, to confound those which are. (Haydock)
Ver. 23. The
synagogues were religious assemblies with the Jews, wherein they met on the sabbath and festival days, to pray, to read and
hear expounded the word of God, and to exercise the other practices of their law. (Calmet)
Ver. 24. Many
came to Christ to beg to be cured of their corporal infirmities; nor do we read of a single one here, who came to be delivered
from spiritual sickness. Our blessed Savior nevertheless, bearing with their imperfection, condescends to heal them, that
he might thence take occasion of exciting their faith, and preparing them for their spiritual cure. (Jansenius) --- It is
much to be regretted, that the conduct of Christians at the present day, is not more reasonable than that of the Jews here
mentioned. If the Almighty, says the eloquent Masillon, had not the power or will of dispensing goods and evils, how small
would be the number of those who would ever retire to the temple to present their petition to Him. (Haydock) --- Our Saviour
asks not, if they believed, as he did on other occasions; they had given him sufficient proof, by bringing their sick from
distant parts. (St. Chrysostom, hom. xiv.)
 Ver. 1. St. Mark (chap. i, ver. 13) tells us, Christ was with
wild beasts, eratque cum bestiis, meta ton therion.
 Ver. 5. Assumpsit, paralambanei. statuit eum, istesin.
St. Gregory, hom. 16. in Evang. t. 1. page. 1492. Ed. Ben. Quid mirum si se ab illo permisit in montem duci, qui se pertulit
etiam a membris illius crucifigi?
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Christ's fast of forty days: he is tempted: begins his preaching
in Galilee according to the prophet: fixes his abode at Capharnaum: calls Peter and Andrew, James and John: his miracles,
reputation, and numerous followers.
1 Then *Jesus was led by the spirit into the desert, to be tempted by the
2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterwards
3 And the tempter coming, said to him: If thou be the Son of God, command
that these stones be made bread.
4 But he answered, and said: It is written: *Man liveth not by bread alone,
but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.
5 Then the devil took him up into the holy city, and set him on the pinnacle
of the temple,
6 And said to him: If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down, for it
is written: *That he hath given his angels charge of thee, and in their hands shall they bear thee up, lest perhaps thou dash
thy foot against a stone.
7 Jesus said to him: It is written again: *Thou shalt not tempt the Lord
8 Again the devil took him up into a very high mountain: and shewed him
all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them,
9 And said to him: All these will I give thee, if falling down thou wilt
10 Then Jesus saith to him: Begone, Satan, for it is written: *The Lord
thy God shalt thou adore, and him only shalt thou serve.
11 Then the devil left him; and behold angels came and ministered to him.
12 Now when Jesus had heard that John was delivered up, *he retired into
13 And leaving the city Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Capharnaum, on the
sea coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Nephthalim:
14 That what was said by Isaias, the prophet, might be fulfilled:
15 *The land of Zabulon and land of Nephthalim, the way of the sea, beyond
the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles:
16 The people that sat in darkness, saw great light: and to them that sat
in the region of the shadow of death, light is sprung up.
17 *From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say: Do penance, for the
kingdom of heaven is at hand.
18 And Jesus walking by the sea of Galilee, *saw two brothers, Simon, who
is called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishers).
19 And he saith to them: Come after me, and I will make you to become fishers
20 And they, immediately leaving their nets, followed him.
21 And going on from thence, he saw other two brothers, James the son
of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets: and he called them.
22 And they, immediately leaving their nets and father, followed him.
23 And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and
preaching the gospel of the kingdom: and healing all diseases, and infirmities among the people.
24 And his fame went throughout all Syria, and they brought to him all
sick people, that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and such as were possessed by devils and lunatics, and those
that had the palsy, and he healed them:
25 *And great multitudes followed him from Galilee, and from Decapolis,
and from Jerusalem, and from Judea, and from beyond the Jordan.
1: about the year A.M. 4435[the year of the world 4435], about the
year A.D. 31.; Mark i. 12., Luke iv. 1.
4: Deuteronomy viii. 3.; Luke iv. 4.
6: Psalm xc. 11.
7: Deuteronomy vi. 16.
10: Deuteronomy vi. 13.
12: Mark i. 14.; Luke iv. 14.; John iv. 43.
15: Isaias lx. 1.
17: Mark i. 15.
18: Mark i. 16.; Luke v. 2.
25: Mark iii. 7.; Luke vi. 17.