Ver 1. Chanaan.
These occupied the countries situated on the Mediterranean sea, as far as Egypt: the Amorrhites dwelt nearer to the
lake of Sodom. The whole country is divided between these two nations, including that territory which the Philistines had
seized, and which belonged also to Israel. Almost every city had its respective king, according to the ancient custom in the
east, intra suam cuique patriam regna finiebantur. (Justin. i.) Strabo (xvi.) says this was particularly verified in
the cities of Phœnicia. (Calmet) --- Till they. Hebrew, "we...their heart melted, neither was there spirit in
them any more, because of the children of Israel." They fainted as it were through fear, and could not take their breath,
or according to the Septuagint adopt any thing rational; "they had no prudence," phronesis. (Haydock)
Ver. 2. Time.
While the enemy was rendered incapable of attacking the Israelites by excessive fear (Calmet) and consternation, Josue was
commanded to renew the sign of the covenant, by which they were to take possession of the land, and it is supposed that he
complied the day after he arrived at Galgal; (Haydock) so that the wound would be healing, when the feast of the Passover
commenced four days later. On the third day it is most painful. (Genesis xxxiv. 25.) --- Of stone. Hebrew tsurim,
which some translate, "sharp;" but the Septuagint and the best interpreters agree, that the word indicates a stone. Such a
knife was used by Sephora. (Exodus iv. 25.) It was supposed that sharp stones would cause less inflammation or danger. Samiâ testâ....amputabant, nec aliter citra perniciem.
(Pliny, [Natural History?] xxv. 12.) Herodotus (ii. 86,) observes, that the Egyptian embalmers opened the body of the deceased
with a "sharp Ethiopian stone." The people of Africa, and of America, have frequently used stone to cut wood, &c. Some
of the Fathers assert, that Christ was circumcised with a knife of stone. But any other sharp instrument might be used for
the purpose. Any person might perform the operation. Izates, king of the Adiabenians, received circumcision from the hand
of a surgeon. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] xx. 2.) (Calmet) --- Time. Not that such as had been circumcised before were
to be circumcised again: but that they were now to renew, and take up again the practice of circumcision; which had been omitted
during their 40 years' sojourning in the wilderness; by reason of their being always uncertain when they should be obliged
to march. (Challoner) --- St. Augustine (q. 6,) seems to think that the Israelites despised this ceremony in the desert. Theodoret
(q. 2,) supposes it was disused because it was not then necessary, to distinguish the Israelites from other nations. Masius
is of opinion that God would not allow them to employ it, after their revolt at Cades-barne, when they would not take possession
of the land of Chanaan; and hence they could not resume that privilege, till God had authorized them again, ver 7., and Numbers
xiv. 33. The covenant with God, of which circumcision was the seal, had been, in the mean time, suspended. But as the Israelites
are no where blamed, in Scripture, on account of this omission, it seems that God dispensed with them during the 38 years
after they left Sinai, that the children might not be exposed to the evident danger of perishing, as the people knew not how
soon the cloud would give notice for an immediate departure. (Calmet) --- Since they were now in the midst of the nations
of Chanaan, this distinctive mark (Menochius) was to be henceforth diligently observed. (Haydock)
Ver. 3. Hill,
at Galgal. Josue took care to have this ceremony performed. (Calmet) --- Perhaps he circumcised some himself, as Abraham did
those of his own house, Genesis xvii. 23. (Menochius)
Ver. 4. Second.
Hebrew, "this is the thing, (the cause why) Josue gave circumcision."
Ver. 5. Desert.
After the departure from Sinai, where the Passover was celebrated, and where, of course, the people must have been circumcised.
Ver. 6. Forty.
Some copies of the Septuagint add, "two," as if the 40 years' wandering in the desert, were to be dated from the time that
the spies discouraged the people, in the second year of their departure from Egypt. But the Hebrew and the best chronologers
allow only 40 years in the whole. (Calmet) --- Hebrew, "For the children of Israel walked 40 years in the wilderness, till
all the men fit for war, who came out of Egypt, were consumed, because they obeyed not the voice of the Lord, unto whom the
Lord swore that he would not shew them the land, which the Lord swore unto their fathers that he would give us, a land flowing
with milk and honey; (7) and their children he raised up in their stead, them Josue circumcised." (Haydock)
--- The Septuagint is also rather fuller than the Vulgate but gives the same sense. These children who receive, what their
rebellious fathers had been refused, are a sensible figure of the Christian Church; as that second circumcision under
Josue, represents the spiritual cleansing of the heart, which Jesus Christ has enjoined, Romans ii. 28., and 1 Corinthians
Ver. 8. Healed.
The Passover lasted eight days: after which they proceeded to attack Jericho. Yet the people, unfit for war, remained at Galgal;
where the camp continued a long time afterwards.
Ver. 9. Egypt.
The people of that country adopted circumcision only after this period, (Calmet) and it never became general among them. They
were therefore held in abhorrence, like the rest of the uncircumcised nations, among the Jews, Genesis xxxiv. 14., and 1 Kings
xiv. 6. Theodoret (q. 4,) looks upon circumcision as a symbol of the liberation from the servitude of Egypt, where, he says,
history informs us, that many of the Hebrews had neglected this rite. --- Galgal is interpreted liberty, by Josephus;
but moderns render it "a rolling away," (Calmet) or revolution. Hebrew, "I have rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off
you." (Haydock) --- Those Israelites who remained at the other side of the river, were ordered to be circumcised at the same
time with their brethren. But they could not partake in the solemnity of the Passover, as they were at a distance from the
Ver. 10. Phase.
This was the third. The first was celebrated in Egypt, Exodus xii. The second at Sinai, Numbers ix. (Menochius) --- Afterwards
it was disused till the Israelites took possession of Chanaan, as it was chiefly designed for that country, Exodus xii. 25.
Ver. 11. Corn.
Some pretend that the Hebrew means "old corn." But the ancient interpreters take no notice of this restriction. The offering
of corn was probably omitted on this occasion, as the Israelites had not cultivated the land. --- Frumenty. Septuagint,
"new corn." Hebrew, "parched, on that same day." These last words are taken by the Septuagint as a part of the next sentence.
Ver. 12. Land.
The Septuagint intimate on the 15th. The Hebrew seems to say the 16th, Nisan, "on the morrow after they had eaten of the (old)
corn." (Calmet) --- Grabe's Septuagint agrees with the Vulgate and Hebrew, and specifies that the Israelites "eat of the corn
of the country on the day after the Passover, unleavened and new. On that day, the morrow, manna ceased." All depends on the
determination of the first day of the festival. If we date from the eating of the paschal lamb on the 14th, or from the solemn
day, which was the 15th, manna must have been withdrawn either on the 15th or 16th of the month; though Salien thinks that
it ceased as soon as the Israelites had begun to eat of the fruit of the country, on the eastern side of the Jordan. This
miraculous food was withholden as soon as the Israelites entered the land of promise; and so the blessed Eucharist, of which
it was a figure, and all the sacraments, will cease, when the Christian people shall have taken possession of their heavenly
Ver. 13. Adversaries?
Dost thou bear arms for or against us? (Calmet)
Ver. 14. Prince
of the host of the Lord, &c. St. Michael, who is called prince of the people of Israel, Daniel x. 21. (Challoner)
--- Some of the Fathers explain it of the Son of God. (Origen, hom. 6.) But St. Augustine, City of God xi. 13., St. Jerome
in Galatians iii., and interpreters in general agree, that the person who here appeared to Josue, was the archangel Michael.
He came, in the name of God, to assure Josue of success, as the angel had appeared to Moses in the burning bush, as
if to denote the distress of the Hebrews, and to encourage Moses to undertake their liberation. (Calmet) --- Chaldean, "I
am the angel sent by God." In that character he is called the Lord. (Haydock)
Ver. 15. Worshipping.
Not with divine honour, but with a religious veneration of an inferior kind, suitable to the dignity of his person. (Challoner)
--- He styles the angel Adonai, which is a title frequently given to men; and hence he does not seem to have designed
to give him supreme worship. (Calmet) --- If he did, (Haydock) it was referred to God. (Calmet) (Exodus xx.)
Ver. 16. Loose.
The angel did not only accept of the honour done to him, but also required more, shewing that the field near Jericho was rendered
holy, by his presence. (Worthington) --- Hence he ordered Josue to put off his shoes, as Moses had done at the bush,
Exodus iii. 5. The Turks leave their shoes at the doors of their mosques, and do not dare to tread on the bare floor. Formerly
the pagans would not spit in their temples. (Arrian.) "If, says Porphyrius, in the sacrifices instituted by men, in honour
of the gods, people be careful to have their shoes clean, with how much greater attention ought we to preserve our bodies,
which are, as it were, the garments of the soul, free from every impurity and corruption!" (Abstin. 2.) (Calmet)