1 John v.
Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. That
Jesus is the Christ, the promised Messias, the Redeemer of the world, is born of God, is made his adoptive son
by his grace in baptism. (Witham) --- Is born of God; that is, is justified, and become a child of God by baptism;
which is also to be understood, provided the belief of this fundamental article of the Christian faith be accompanied with
all the other conditions, which, by the word of God and his appointment, are also required for justification; such as a general
belief of all that God has revealed and promised; hope, love, repentance, and a sincere disposition to keep God's holy law
and commandments. (Challoner) --- Loveth him that begot; i.e. the eternal Father. --- Loveth him also
who was born of him; i.e. loveth him who is his only begotten and eternal Son. (Witham)
Ver. 2. In
this we know that we love the children of God, (that is, all men, and especially the faithful, who are made his adoptive
children) when we love God, and keep his commandments, for these two branches of charity, the love of God and of our
neighbour, are inseparable: the one is known and proved by the other. (Witham)
Ver. 3. And
his commandments are not heavy; not burdensome. Not but that they comprehend what seems hard to human frailty, and especially
to men carried away with the love of vanities in this world, who think it hard to comply with Christ's doctrine of self-denials,
of renouncing their inclinations, of suffering death, sooner than to sin against God, or to renounce their faith: but the
love of God, and the promises of an eternal happiness in the next life, with the assistances which God gives them, make the
yoke of Christ sweet, and his burden light. See Matthew xi. 30. How different is this doctrine from that of those late heretics,
who pretend that God's commandments are impossible, even to just men, when they employ all their endeavours. See the first
proposition of Jansenius, and this heresy of Calvin condemned by the council of Trent, session 6, cap. xi. canon. 18. (Witham)
Ver. 4. This
is the victory which overcometh the world, our faith. That is, a lively faith, working by charity, makes a man victorious
over the greatest temptations, and over all the adversaries of his salvation. (Witham) --- Our faith; Not a bare speculative
or dead faith, but a faith working by charity. (Galatians v. 6.) (Challoner)
Ver. 6. Came
by water and blood. The sense seems to be, by water, with which he ordered every one to be baptized and made Christians;
2ndly, by his blood shed on the cross for our redemption. (Witham) --- Blood: not only to wash away our sins by the
water of baptism, but by his own blood. (Challoner) --- And it is the Spirit that testifieth that Christ
is the truth. By the Spirit, which is not here called the Holy Spirit, or the Holy Ghost, as in the next
verse, is either meant the Spirit or soul of Christ, which dying he recommended into the hands of his Father, and which shewed
that he was truly man, against Cerinthus, and some heretics of those times; or else it may signify the spirit of grace, given
in this world to the faithful, in the same sense as St. Paul says, (Romans viii. 16.) that the Spirit himself giveth testimony
to our Spirit, that we are the sons of God: and of which may be understood what is said here, (ver. 10.) He that believeth
in the Son of God, hath the testimony of God in himself. (Witham)
Ver. 7. There
are three that give testimony in heaven: the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one: i.e. one in
nature, in substance, and in all perfections, in the same sense as when Christ himself said, (John x. 30.) I and the Father
are one, or one thing. The Socinians object that this verse is wanting in many Greek manuscripts; and even Erasmus in
one edition, and Mr. Simon in his Critics, have questioned it, or rejected it, as a false reading, but without any sufficient
proofs and grounds, as hath been shewn by many learned Catholics, and also by Protestant writers, who receive in their translations
this verse as canonical. It is easy to account for the omission of this verse; for as both the seventh and eighth verse begin
and end with the same words, this gave occasion to the oversight and omission of the transcribers, whereas it is not credible
that such a whole verse could be added. And that it was only by the mistake and oversight of transcribers may further appear,
because we find part of the seventh verse, to wit, and these three are one, cited by Tertullian, lib. contra Praxeam.
chap. xxiii. p. 515. Ed. Rig. and twice by St. Cyprian, Epist. 73. ad Jubaianum. p. 125. Ed. Rig. in the Oxford Edition, p.
310. and in his Treatise de Unit. Ecclesiĉ, p. 181. Ed. Rigal. and in the Oxford Ed. p. 79, where also Dr. Fell defends this
verse of St. John to be genuine. Tertullian and St. Cyprian wrote long before the dispute with the Arians. The Socinians also
object that this passage is not brought by St. Athanasius and some other fathers against the Arians, which they could scarce
have omitted had they read this verse, but this only proves that this omission had happened in some manuscripts in their time,
or, as some conjecture, that the Arians had corrupted some copies. St. Fulgentius made use of it against the Arians, and also
others about that time. See the Benedictines of St. Maur against Mr. Simon, in the first tome of St. Jerome, p. 1670. Both
Catholics and Protestants, after a diligent examination, have received this verse, which is found in the best manuscripts.
See Greek Testament at Amsterdam, in the year 1711.[A.D. 1711.] The three divine Persons, who are present everywhere,
though said to be in heaven, gave testimony concerning Christ. The Father by a voice from heaven, both at his baptism (Matthew
iii. 17.) and at his transfiguration, (Matthew xvii. 5.) saying: "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased, hear
ye him:" and also by all the miracles wrought by the same power of all the three divine Persons. 2. The Son testified to the
Jews on many occasions, that he was sent from God, that he was the only Son of God, that he and his Father were one, &c.
as in the annotations on John iii. The Holy Ghost confirmed the same, particularly by coming down upon the disciples on the
day of Pentecost, and inspiring them to teach the same doctrine concerning Jesus Christ. (Witham) --- An express proof of
the three distinct persons and unity of nature and essence in the blessed Trinity.
Ver. 8. And
there are three that give testimony on earth: the Spirit, the water, and the blood; and these three are one. This is
a repetition of what was before said, ver. 6, to be expounded in the same manner. But when it is added, these three are
one, the sense is, that they witness one and the same truth. (Witham) --- As the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost,
all bear witness to Christ's divinity; so the spirit, which he yielded up, crying out with a loud voice upon the cross,
and the water and blood that issued from his side, bear witness to his humanity, and are one; that is, all agree in
one testimony. (Challoner)
Ver. 10. He
that believeth not the Son, maketh him (God) a liar, by refusing to believe the testimonies given by the three
divine Persons, that Jesus was the Messias and the true Son of God, by whom eternal life is obtained and promised to all that
comply with his doctrine. In him we have also this lively confidence, that we shall obtain whatever we ask, according to his
will, when we ask what is for our good with perseverance and in the manner we ought. And this we know and have experience
of, by having obtained the petitions that we have made. (Witham)
Ver. 16. A
sin which is not unto death....and life shall be given to him. It is hard to determine what St. John here calls
a sin which is not unto death, and a sin which is unto death. The difference cannot be the same as betwixt
sins that are called venial and mortal; for he says, that if a man pray for his brother who commits a sin that
is not unto death, life shall be given to him: therefore such a one had before lost the life of grace, and been guilty
of what is commonly called a mortal sin. And when he speaks of a sin that is unto death, and adds these words, I
do not say that any one should ask for that sin, it cannot be supposed that St. John would say this of every mortal sin,
but only of some heinous sins which are very seldom remitted, because such sinners very seldom repent. By a sin therefore
which is not unto death, interpreters commonly understand a wilful apostacy from the faith, and from the known truth, when
a sinner hardened by his own ingratitude becomes deaf to all admonitions, will do nothing for himself, but runs on to final
impenitence. Nor yet does St. John say that such a sin is never remitted, or cannot be remitted, but only has these words,
I do not say that any one should ask for the remission of that sin; that is, though we must pray for all sinners whatsoever,
yet man cannot pray for such sinners with such a confidence of obtaining always their petitions, as St. John said before,
ver. 14. Whatever exposition we follow on this verse, our faith teaches us from the holy Scriptures, that God desires not
the death of any sinner, but that he be converted and live. See Ezechiel xxxiii. 11. Though men's "sins be as the scarlet,
they shall be made as white as snow." (Isaias i. 18.) It is the will of God that every one come to the knowledge of truth
and be saved. See John vi. 40. There is no sin so great but which God is willing to forgive, and has left power in his Church
to remit the most enormous sins; so that no sinner need despair of pardon, nor will any sinner perish but by his own fault.
(Witham) --- A sin unto death. Some understand this of final impenitence, or of dying in mortal sin, which is
the only sin that never can be remitted; but, it is probable, he may also comprise under this name the sin of apostacy from
the faith, and some other such henious sins as are seldom and hardly remitted: and therefore he gives little encouragement
to such as pray for these sinners, to expect what they ask. (Challoner)
Ver. 17. All
iniquity is sin. The sense here is, that sin is always an injury or an injustice done to God; but though every
sin implies such an injury and an offence against God, yet there are different degrees in such injuries, which are not always
such an injustice as St. John calls the sin unto death. (Witham)
Ver. 18. Sinneth
not. See the annotation on chap. iii. 6. &c. (Challoner) --- The generation of God preserveth him,
(i.e. the grace of adoption, as long as it remains in the soul; see Chap. iii. 9.) and the wicked one (i.e. the devil)
toucheth him not. (Witham)
Ver. 19. And
the whole world is seated in wickedness; i.e. a great part of the world. It may also signify, is under the wicked
one; meaning the devil, who is elsewhere called the prince of this world, that is, of all the wicked. (John xii. 31.)
Ver. 20. And
may be in his true Son. This is the true God, and eternal life. Which words are a clear proof of Christ's divinity,
and as such made use of by the ancient Fathers.
Ver. 21. Keep
yourselves from idols. An admonition to the new converted Christians, lest, conversing with heathens and idolaters, they
might fall back into the sin of idolatry, which may be the sin unto death here mentioned by St. John. (Witham)
 Ver. 1. Eum qui genuit, ton gennesanta, generantem;
which, in English, may be translated, the Father.
 Ver. 6. Quoniam Christus est veritas; in most Greek copies is now read, oti
to pneuma esti e aletheia, quoniam Spiritus est veritas.
 Ver. 8. Hi tres unum sunt. Divers Greek copies, eis
en eisin, in unum sunt: and so the Protestant translation hath, and these three agree in one; though in the seventh
verse they follow the manuscripts which there have, are one, kai oi treis en eisi.
 Ver. 17. Omnis iniquitas, pasa adikia, properly
injustitia. It is not here anomia, as in Chap. iii. 4.
 Ver. 18. Sed generatio Dei: Some manuscripts, genesis;
others, o gennetheis ek tou Theou. qui genitus est ex Deo.
 Ver. 19. In maligno positus est, en to ponero keitai.
 Ver. 20. In vero Filio ejus, hic est verus Deus, en to alethino
uio autou, outos estin o alethinos Theos, with the Greek article. St. Athanasius, St. Ambrose, St. Hilary, St. Augustine,
St. Cyril by this sentence prove Christ truly God. See Petavius, lib. 2. de Trin. chap. ix. num. 8.
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Of them that are born of God, and of true charity. Faith overcomes
the world. Three that bear witness to Christ. Of faith in his name, and of sin that is, and is not to death.
1 Every one who believeth that Jesus is the Christ, is born of God. And
every one that loveth him that begot, loveth him also who was born of him.
2 In this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, and
keep his commandments.
3 For this is the charity of God, that we keep his commandments: and his
commandments are not heavy.
4 For whatsoever is born of God, overcometh the world: and this is the
victory which overcometh the world, our faith.
5 *Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus
is the Son of God?
6 This is he that came by water and blood, Jesus Christ; not in water only,
but in water and blood. And it is the spirit that testifieth, that Christ is the truth.
7 And there are three that give testimony in heaven: the Father, the Word,
and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.
8 And there are three that give testimony on earth: the spirit, and water,
and blood: and these three are one.
9 If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater:
for this is the testimony of God, which is greater, because he hath testified of his Son.
10 *He that believeth in the Son of God, hath the testimony of God in himself.
He that believeth not the Son, maketh him a liar: because he believeth not in the testimony which God hath testified of his
11 And this is the testimony, that God hath given to us eternal life: and
this life is in his Son.
12 He that hath the Son, hath life: he that hath not the Son, hath not
13 These things I write to you, that you may know that you have eternal
life, who believe in the name of the Son of God.
14 And this is the confidence which we have in him: that whatsoever we
shall ask, according to his will, he heareth us.
15 And we know that he heareth us whatsoever we ask: we know that we have
the petitions which we request of him.
16 He that knoweth his brother to sin a sin which is not unto death,
let him ask, and life shall be given to him, that sinneth not to death. There is a sin unto death; I do not say that any one
should ask for it.
17 All iniquity is sin: and there is a sin unto death.
18 We know that every one, who is born of God, sinneth not: but the generation
of God preserveth him, and the wicked one toucheth him not.
19 We know that we are of God; and the whole world is seated in wickedness.
20 And we know that the Son of God is come, *and he hath given us understanding,
that we may know the true God, and may be in his true Son. This is the true God, and life eternal.
21 Little children, keep yourselves from idols. Amen.
5: 1 Corinthians xv. 57.
10: John iii. 36.
20: Luke xxiv. 45.