Notes & Commentary:
To the Angel of the church of Ephesus. The great St. Timothy, who was bishop of Ephesus, died a glorious martyr about
this time. But as for the admonitions and reprehensions given in these letters, we must take notice, that they are given to
the faithful of each church, and not only to the bishops, as it appears by the words so often repeated. (Witham) --- Angel.
This could have been no other than St. Timothy, who was then bishop of Ephesus. We must not suppose the faults, which are
reproved by St. John, to belong individually to St. Timothy, but to some members of the Church. (Bossuet, and others) ---
These things, saith he, who holdeth, &c. That is, Christ, or the Angel who represented Christ, as appeareth
by his titles repeated out of the last chapter. --- And hast not failed, or fainted, in opposing the teachers of false
doctrine. --- Thou has left thy first charity, or first fervour, a common, yet a very dangerous disposition, and especially
in a bishop, charged with the care of those under him. --- Do penance....practise the first works, return to
thy first fervour, or I will remove thy candlestick out of its place. The church of Ephesus is threatened, as in danger
to lose its faith, which faith should be transplanted and received in other places. It is what God has divers times permitted,
that churches flourishing in the profession of the true Christian faith should be perverted by infidelity and heresy, while
the faith hath been planted in other kingdoms of the world. I need not bring instances, where candlesticks have been removed
out of their places. (Witham) --- The Nicolaites were an infamous sect, who disturbed the rising Church by the superstitions
and all the impurities of paganism. See St. Augustine, de hæresib. --- To him, to every one that overcometh, I will
give to eat of the tree of life, (that is, eternal happiness, differently expressed in these letters) which is in the
paradise of my God. It is spoke in the person of Christ, as man. (Witham)
Ver. 8-11. To
the Angel of the church of Smyrna. To St. Polycarp, or some bishop there before him. No reprehension is given to this
bishop, or to his church, but a commendation for suffering in poverty and tribulation, when they were rich in grace. (Witham)
--- Poverty. He was poor in temporal things, but rich in grace and merits. --- Thou art blasphemed by those
false teachers, who call themselves Jews and Israelites, and the chosen people of God, waiting for the coming of the Messias,
but are not to be looked upon as such; having refused to own their true Messias, Jesus Christ, they are the Synagogue of
Satan, the greatest enemies of the true faith. --- You shall have tribulation ten days, which several here understand
for a long time, others for a short time, ten times being used in both senses. (Witham) --- The first death is that
of the body, the second of the soul. (Ven. Bede)
To the Angel of the Church of Pergamus. This Church is exhorted to do penance, and reprehended, as the
seat or throne of Satan. It is only said, that the bishop lives where this satanical seat is, that he had not denied
the faith, even under the persecution, when St. Antipas suffered martyrdom, of whom see Tillemont in the persecution
under Domitian, tom. ii, p. 119, and note 523; and Bollandus, April 11th; though the acts themselves be not of great authority.
--- Thou hast them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaites, which is compared to that of Balaam, who taught
Balac to cast a scandal before the children of Israel, by which they were seduced by the women of the Moabites,
and fell into the sin of fornication and idolatry. (Numbers xxiv. and xxxi. 16.) --- To him that overcometh, I will give
the hidden manna; a happiness in heaven, which the eye hath not seen, &c. --- And a white stone,
with a new name written, as a mark of the happiness promised to all those who shall conquer. An allusion to the custom
of giving a white stone to those that were tried and acquitted, and also to persons promoted to a dignity; and a black stone
to such as were found guilty. See Acts xxvi. 10. (Witham) --- This new name is the eternal recompense, unknown and despised
by worldlings, but esteemed by the faithful, who know the excellence of the rewards promised by God. (Calmet)
To the Angel of the church of Thyatira. Here is first a commendation of their constancy in the faith, in good
works, charity, patience, and ministry, which chiefly regards their bishop, whoever he was at that time. The
heretics, called Alogians, who rejected the Apocalypse, (chiefly because of the clear proofs of the divinity of the Word,
or Son of God) pretended that there was not church at Thyatira, when St. John is supposed to have written his Apocalypse.
They have no proof of this. This same church was afterwards perverted by the Montanists. See St. Epiphanius, hær. li. p. 455.
Here follows a reprehension that they permitted the woman, (here called by the name of Jezabel, as was called
the wife of Achaz, who persecuted the true prophets, and protected the false ones, 3 Kings xviii.) to seduce the servants
of God, to commit fornication, and eat of things offered to idols. There is no probability that this Jezabel was wife
to the bishop of that church. Had this been true, the bishop would have deserved a reprehension much more severe than is here
given him. Alcazar thinks that by this woman was meant some heretical sect, or the corrupt synagogue of the Jews; but interpreters
commonly understand some powerful woman thereabout among the infamous Nicolaites, who by her authority and artifices, brought
many to embrace that sect. --- I give her time to do penance; and she will not, or would not repent. It is Christ
who speaks as God, for who but God gives sinners time to repent? --- Behold, I will cast her into a bed, &c. Some
understand a bed of sickness, others of corporal death, others eternal torments in hell, where she, and they that sin
with her, shall be in very great tribulation, unless first they do penance. --- All the churches shall
know that I am he, who searcheth the reins and hearts, which God alone can do. See Psalm vii. 10.; Jeremias xvii. 10.;
&c. It is God also who will give to every one....according to his works. See Psalm lxi. 13.; Proverbs xxiv. 12.;
Romans ii. 6. and in divers other places. --- I will not put upon you any other weight, &c. That is, not the insupportable
burden of the Jewish ceremonies, to which teachers of false doctrines would have you subject. (Witham) --- Whoever does not
give in to this new doctrine of the Nicolaites and Gnostics, and does not approve the deep and abstruse doctrines of Satan,
which they teach, shall have no new weight or punishment. Let them keep the doctrine once delivered. (Calmet) --- Yet in the
faith which you have already learnt, remain steadfast, till I come. --- To them who shall overcome, &c.
I will give power over or above all nations. This shews that the saints, who are with Christ our Lord in heaven,
receive power from him to preside over nations, and provinces, as patrons; and shall come with him at the end of the world
to execute his will against those who have not kept his commandments. (Challoner) --- End. This alludes to the day
of judgment, when the faithful shall sit on thrones with Christ. And he shall inherit the morning star of perpetual bliss,
that shall never set. --- They shall triumph over all the wicked world, and under me shall rule them, as it were, with
a rod of iron, being so much exalted above them. --- As the vessel of a potter, shall all their present greatness
be broken. To every such faithful servant, I will give the morning star, another expression to signify eternal
light, or eternal happiness. (Witham)
 Ver. 17. Calculum candidum, psephon leuken. See
Acts xxvi. 10.
 Ver. 20. Mulierem Jezabel, ten gunaika Iezabel.
Dr. Wells, in his amendments to the Protestant translation, has put thy wife, and in the Greek gunaika sou,
which he says is found in the Alexandrian and several other manuscripts. But neither the Oxford edition of 1675, nor that
at Amsterdam of 1711, take notice of this reading in any one manuscript. As for that one manuscript of Alexandria, I guess
by Walton's Polyglot, that it cannot well be read in that place. And though it is likely that the author of the Syriac version
may have found that reading, yet there is nothing for it in the Arabic or Ethiopic, nor in the vulgar Latin, which, as Dr.
Wells himself takes notice on 1 John v. 7. is more ancient than any other version or Greek manuscripts. And though we find
uxorem tuam in St. Cyprian ad Antonianum, edit. Rig. p. 72, and in the edition of Dr. Fell, published in Amsterdam, in the
year 1701, p. 248, where he says in the note mark a, cui interpretationi favent illa Græca exemplaria, quæ legunt, gunaika
sou, but he did not think fit to tell us where any such manuscripts were to be found, nor have I heard that they have
been seen by any one. It is certain St. Epiphanius did not find sou, nor think this the true reading, when
in the heresy of the Alogians, by Jezabel, he understands Maximilla, Priscilla, or Quintilla, in Marcion's time.
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Directions to write to the Angels or bishops of Ephesus,
Smyrna, Pergamus, and Thyatira.
1 To the Angel of the church of Ephesus write: These things, saith he
who holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks:
2 I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou canst
not bear the wicked: and thou hast tried them, who say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars:
3 And thou hast patience, and hast endured for my name, and hast not
4 But I have against thee, that thou hast left thy first charity.
5 Be mindful, therefore, from whence thou art fallen: and do penance,
and do the first works. Or else I come to thee, and will move thy candlestick out of its place, unless thou do penance.
6 But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaites, which
I also hate.
7 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith to the churches:
To him that overcometh, I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the paradise of my God.
8 And to the Angel of the church of Smyrna write: These things saith
the First and the Last: who was dead, and liveth:
9 I know thy tribulation and thy poverty, but thou art rich: and thou
art blasphemed by those who say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.
10 Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer. Behold, the devil
shall cast some of you into prison, that you may be tried: and you shall have tribulation ten days. Be thou faithful unto
death, and I will give thee the crown of life.
11 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith to the churches:
He that shall overcome, shall not be hurt by the second death.
12 And to the Angel of the church of Pergamus write: These things saith
he that hath the sharp two-edged sword:
13 I know where thou dwellest, where the seat of Satan is: and thou holdest
fast my name, and hast not denied my faith. And in those days Antipas was my faithful witness, who was slain among
you, where Satan dwelleth.
14 But I have a few things against thee: because thou hast there them
that hold the doctrine *of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumbling block before the children of Israel, to eat, and to
15 So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaites.
16 In like manner do penance: if not, I will come to thee quickly, and
will fight against them with the sword of my mouth.
17 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith to the churches:
To him that overcometh, I will give the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone; and in the stone a new name written,
which no man knoweth but he that receiveth it.
18 And to the Angel of the church of Thyatira write: These things saith
the Son of God, who hath eyes as a flame of fire, and his feet like fine brass:
19 I know thy works, and thy faith, and thy charity, and ministry, and
thy patience, and thy last works which are more than the former.
20 But I have a few things against thee: because thou permittest the
woman, Jezabel, who calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants, to commit fornication, and to eat of
things offered to idols.
21 And I gave her a time to do penance: and she will not repent of her
22 Behold, I will cast her into a bed: and they that commit adultery
with her, shall be in very great tribulation, unless they do penance from their deeds.
23 And I will kill her children with death, and all the churches shall
know, *that I am he who searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give to every one of you according to your works. But I
say to you,
24 And to the rest who are at Thyatira: Whosoever have not this doctrine,
and who have not known the depths of Satan, as they say, I will not put upon you any other burden:
25 Yet that which you have, hold fast till I come.
26 And he that shall overcome, and keep my works unto the end, I will
give him power over the nations;
27 And he shall rule them with a rod of iron, and as the vessel of a
potter they shall be broken,
28 As I also received from my Father: and I will give him the morning
29 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith to the churches.
14: Numbers xxiv. 2. and xxv. 2.
23: 1 Kings xvi. 7.; Psalm vii. 10.; Jeremias xi. 20. and xvii. 10. and