Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. The
apostle is ordered to measure the temple. Two prophets are promised, to teach mankind. They are put to death, and in three
days and a half after they are raised to life, and ascend to heaven. A great earthquake follows. The seventh Angel sounds
the trumpet. The elders give thanks to God. --- Measure the temple, &c. This is to signify that the divine Providence
would always protect his faithful servants, who are called the temple of God; (1 Corinthians iii. 17. and 2 Corinthians vi.
16.) but by the outward court not to be measured, because it is given to the Gentiles, &c. (ver. 2) is commonly
understood idolaters, infidels, heretics, who are not in the temple of God, nor in his Church. It is an allusion to the Jewish
temple, and the different divisions of it, the Gentiles not being permitted to enter into the temple itself, but only into
that outward part called the court of the Gentiles. (Witham) --- The churches consecrated to the true God, are so much diminished
in number, that they are represented by St. John as one church; its ministers officiate at one altar; and all the true
faithful are so few, with respect to the bulk of mankind, that the evangelist sees them assembled in one temple, to pay their
adorations to the Most High. (Pastorini)
Ver. 2. The
holy city they shall tread under foot forty-two months.
That is, Gentiles and Jews shall be permitted to persecute the Church and the faithful servants of God; but only for a short
time, expressed by forty-two months, as elsewhere by twelve hundred and sixty days, and also by a time,
and times, and half a time, which, as St. Jerome observes, is for a year, and two years, and half a year, which
three different ways of speaking by years, by months, and by days, are only to signify that God never permits his faithful
to be under any violent persecution for any long time. (Witham)
Ver. 3. My
two witnesses....shall prophesy twelve hundred and sixty days. It is a very common interpretation, that by these two witnesses
must be understood Henoch[Enoch] and Elias[Elijah], who are to come before the end of the world. It is true this is what we
read in several of the ancient Fathers, insomuch, that Dr. Wells, in his paraphrase, calls it the "consent of the primitive
fathers," and in his notes says, it is of "unexceptionable authority." This opinion (at least as to Elias) is grounded on
those words of the prophet Malachy, (Malachias iv. 5.) behold, I will send you Elias, the prophet, before the coming of
the great and dreadful day of the Lord; and also on the words of our Saviour, Christ, (Matthew xvii. 11.) where he tells
his disciples: Elias indeed shall come, and restore all things. But I cannot say that the consent of the fathers is
so unanimous as to Henoch: for we find by St. Hilary, that some thought Jeremy[Jeremiah] was to come with Elias, and he himself
thought that with Elias would come Moses. See his commentary on Matt., p. 710, Nov. edit. Secondly, allowing it a received
opinion that Henoch and Elias are again to come before the day of judgment, yet it is not the constant doctrine of the ancient
fathers, that by these two witnesses in this place of the Apocalypse, must be understood Henoch and Elias. St. Cyprian
expounds it of two sorts of martyrs for the Catholic faith; to wit, they who suffer death, and others who only suffered imprisonment,
loss of goods, and the like. Others expound it of the testimonies concerning Christ and his Church, of which some are in the
Old Testament, some in the New. To these we must join all those interpreters who expound all the visions and predictions in
the Apocalypse, till the 20th chapter, of the persecutions raised by the Jews: or by the heathens against the Church, which
have already happened. Of these, both as to ancient fathers and later interpreters, see Alcazar in his Prologomena, note 6,
p. 33, and note 12, p. 48. (Witham) --- Two witnesses. It is commonly understood of Henoch and Elias. (Challoner)
Ver. 4. These
are the two olive-trees, flourishing with works of piety and mercy, and the two candlesticks shining with faith
and good works. (Witham)
Ver. 5. And
if any man would hurt them, &c. These two verses seem to signify both the miracles which God many times wrought by
the prayers of his martyrs, as he had done formerly in the time of Elias[Elijah]
and the exemplary punishments with which from time to time he chastised those by whom they were persecuted, and that he will
do the like by Henoch[Enoch] and Elias, when they shall come. (Witham) --- In this and the following verse are expressed the
miraculous powers with which the two witnesses will be invested. These powers will be necessary to enable them to prove the
truth of their doctrine. Every messenger who appears with a commission from God, is always furnished with means to prove it.
Thus our Saviour and his apostles worked miracles in testimony of the Christian religion. And in the Old Testament, Elias
convicted the false prophets by a miracle. See 3 Kings xviii. Every new teacher consequently, who comes destitute of this
sanction, can claim no credit, but is only to be considered as an imposter. (Pastorini)
Ver. 7. The
beast, &c. God, for the greater good and glory of his servants, permits the devil by antichrist, and such like instruments,
to torment them, and put them to death; and yet by dying they conquer, to the eternal confusion of their persecutors, who
shall behold them going up to heaven, to be there happy with God in his kingdom for ever. (Witham) --- Antichrist, impelled
by Satan, shall kill them. (Pastorini)
Ver. 8. Their
bodies shall lie in the streets. It is what has often happened to the bodies of the martyrs, and may happen to Henoch[Enoch]
and Elias[Elijah], for three days and a half, for a short time. --- The great city. Some understand any city
where Christians are persecuted. Others by the following words, where also their Lord was crucified, will needs have
to be understood Jerusalem, which they hold shall be rebuilt in the time of antichrist, and where by him shall be put to death
Henoch and Elias. But others think it may be expounded of heathen Rome, which in a mystical sense might be called Sodom
for its infamous crimes, and Egypt for its idolatries and superstitions, where Christ might be said to be crucified,
not as to himself, but in his members, according to what he himself said, Matthew xxv. 40., "inasmuch as you did it to one
of these, my least brethren, you did it to me." (Witham) --- City; Jerusalem, which it is supposed will be the residence
of antichrist, and filled with a great concourse of people. (Menochius)
Ver. 10. The
inhabitants of the earth shall rejoice, &c. The persecutors rejoice and make merry for a while, when they seem to
get the better of the Christians. Dioclesian caused pillars to be erected to him, as if he had destroyed the Christian religion;
and when, by his cruelties he saw the faith of Christ, still increase more and more, he fell into a kind of madness, and laid
down his empire. See Baron.[Baronius] ad an. Dni. 304[A.D. 304], p. 771. (Witham)
Ver. 11. The
spirit of life from God entered into them, &c. It is an allusion to a vision in the prophet Ezechiel, Ezechiel xxxvii.
Ver. 13. A
great earthquake. By which may be signified the consternation that fell upon the persecutors of Christians, when by God's
visible chastisements, seven thousand (i.e. many of them) perished miserably; others were struck with fear, others
Ver. 14. These
visions belonged to the second woe, and the third woe is at hand. (Witham) --- Second woe; the persecution of antichrist.
--- Third woe, or the day of judgment, is near at hand. (Pastorini)
Ver. 15. The
seventh Angel, &c. The saints and blessed spirits in heaven are represented praising God with loud voices, at the
approaching of the kingdom of God; some understand at the end and consummation of the wicked world, after the destruction
of antichrist, when the blessed shall reign in heaven: but others expound this of the triumph of the Christian faith and Church,
when the providence of God putting an end to the persecutions against the Christian religion, by the miserable end of Dioclesian,
Maximian, Maxentius, &c., made the kingdom of this world (the powerful Roman empire) become the kingdom of our
Lord, by his raising Constantine the great to the empire, and under him making the faith of Christ triumph over all its persecutors
and adversaries. (Witham)
Ver. 19. The
temple of God was opened....the ark of his testament was seen; which P. Alleman applies to the cross that appeared in
the air to Constantine. Such applications may be probable, but cannot be called certain. (Witham)
 Ver. 2, &c. Atrium autem quod est foris, ten aulen exothen,
not esothen, as in some manuscripts. --- Dr. Wells, when he tells us, on the third verse of this chapter,
that the consent of the primitive Church and their unexceptionable authority, require that by the two witnesses
we understand Henoch[Enoch] and Elias[Elijah], seems to be convinced of it by the authority (as he imagines) of Dr. Grabe.
This we find by his own words, (p. 79) "I shall hear," saith he, "adjoin a note of the late most learned and pious divine,
Dr. Grabe, in reference to this matter, in a passage of St. Irenĉus, lib. v., chap. v. It is note 4, in p. 405, Oxon. Edit.
and runs thus in the doctor's own words: Disputationem de loco in quam Deus transtulerit et huc usque viventes conservarit
Enochum et Eliam Augustinus indicavit ad fidem non pertinere, at cum hic Irenĉus doceat Apostolorum discipulos et (N. B.[Nota
Bene, Note Well?]) auditores dixisse, &c. And the note in Dr. Wells ends with these words: Plures alios legendo notes
licet. After this Dr. W.[Wells] adds: I have taken the pains to transcribe all these citations, that the reader may see how
generally the Fathers do agree in this matter. And the same Dr. Wells a little after: Whereupon, saith he, the good doctor
(Grabe) adds in reference to himself: mihi parum tutum videtur aliter nunc sentire. And had all others the like due esteem
for the Fathers, and the like modest opinion of themselves, there would quickly be taken away that great
and unhappy difference of opinions, which is now in the Church, as to points of religion." I wish, no less than Dr. Wells,
that all others had the like due esteem of the Fathers, and the like modest opinion of themselves as the author of this note,
and he who writ, mihi parum tutum videtur aliter nunc sentire. By such dispositions of submission to the doctrine delivered
or witnessed by the consent of the primitive Fathers, might be quickly taken away the unhappy differences in points of religion
betwixt us, and all pretended reformers, who, by setting up their private judgment against the authority of the Catholic Church,
have brought in these differences. Luther led the way: I care not, said he, if a thousand Cyprians, a thousand Augustines,
are against me, &c. But I am fully persuaded that Dr. W. did not know that all this Latin note, with the citations of
the Fathers, and with those words upon them, (mihi parum tutum videtur aliter nunc sentire) are not the words of the learned
and pious divine, Dr. Grabe, but are found word for word in the third note of Franciscus Feuardentius, in his Paris edition
of St. Irenĉus, in the year 1576, p. 322, from whence they were taken above a hundred years after by Dr. Grabe. Had Dr. W.
taken notice that they were the words of so warm an adversary of the pretended reformation as Feuardentius, I doubt whether
he would have given such high commendations of the true author, with an N. B. on those words of Feuardentius, mihi parum tutum
videtur, &c. But I am glad that Dr. Grabe and Dr. Wells are of the same judgment with the author of the note.
Bible Text & Cross-references:
He is ordered to measure the temple: the two witnesses.
1 And there was given me a reed like unto a rod, and it was said to me:
Arise, and measure the temple of God, and the altar, and them that adore in it.
2 But the court, which is without the temple, cast out, and measure it
not, because it is given to the Gentiles, and the holy city they shall tread under foot forty-two months:
3 And I will give to my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand
two hundred sixty days, clothed in sackcloth.
4 These are the two olive-trees, and the two candlesticks, standing before
the Lord of the earth.
5 And if any man will hurt them, fire shall come out of their mouths, and
shall devour their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, in this manner must he be killed.
6 These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their
prophecy: and they have power over waters to turn them into blood, and to strike the earth with all plagues as often as they
7 And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast, that ascendeth
out of the abyss, shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them.
8 And their bodies shall lie in the streets of the great city, which is
called spiritually Sodom, and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.
9 And they of the tribes, and peoples, and tongues, and nations, shall
see their bodies for three days and a half: and they shall not suffer their bodies to be laid in sepulchres.
10 And the inhabitants of the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry:
and shall send presents one to another, because these two prophets tormented them that dwelt upon the earth.
11 And after three days and a half, the spirit of life from God entered
into them. And they stood upon their feet, and great fear fell upon them that saw them.
12 And they heard a great voice from heaven, saying to them: Come up hither.
And they went up to heaven in a cloud: and their enemies saw them.
13 And at that hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth part of the
city fell: and there were slain in the earthquake, names of men seven thousand; and the rest were cast into a fear, and gave
glory to the God of heaven.
14 The second wo is past: and behold the third wo will come quickly.
15 And the seventh Angel sounded the trumpet: and there were great voices
in heaven, saying: The kingdom of this world is become our Lord's and his Christ's, and he shall reign for ever and ever.
16 And the four and twenty ancients, who sit on their seats in the sight
of God, fell upon their faces and adored God, saying:
17 We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, who art, and who wast, and
who art to come: because thou hast taken thy great power, and thou hast reigned.
18 And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the
dead to be judged, and to render a reward to thy servants, the prophets, and to the saints, and to them that fear thy name,
little and great, and to destroy them who have corrupted the earth.
19 And the temple of God was opened in heaven: and the ark of his testament
was seen in his temple, and there were lightnings, and voices, and an earthquake, and great hail.