Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Why hath God? Hebrew, "Indeed hath God, &c." as if the serpent had overheard Eve arguing
with herself, about God's prohibition, with a sort of displeasure and presumption. St. Augustine thinks, she had given some
entrance to these passions, and the love of her own power, and hence gave credit to the words of the serpent, de Gen.
ad lit. xi. 30. She might not know or reflect that the serpent could not reason thus, naturally; and she had as yet, no idea
or dread of the devil. (Lombard, 2 Dist. 21.) This old serpent entered into the most subtle of creatures, and either by very
expressive signs, or by the motion of the serpent's tongue, held this delusive dialogue with Eve. Moses relates what happened
exteriorily; but from many expressions, and from the curse, ver. 15, he sufficiently indicates, that an evil spirit was the
latent actor. (Haydock) --- Of every tree. Satan perverts the word of God, giving it an ambiguous turn: in doing which,
he has set heretics a pattern, which they follow. (Menochius)
Ver. 3. Not touch it. She exaggerates, through dislike of restraint, St. Ambrose. Or through reverence,
she thought it unlawful to touch what she must not eat, lest perhaps, as if there could be any doubt. "God asserts,
the woman doubts, Satan denies." (St. Bernard) Thus placed, like Eve, between God and the devil, to whom shall we yield our
assent? (Haydock) --- Perhaps we die, Hebrew, "lest ye die."
Ver. 5. God. The old serpent's aim is, to make us think God envies our happiness. (Haydock) ---
Or he would have Eve to suppose, she had not rightly understood her maker, who would surely never deprive her of a fruit which
would give her such an increase of knowledge, as to make her conclude she was before comparatively blind. (Menochius) ---
As gods, Hebrew Elohim, which means also princes, angels, or judges. It appears, that our first parents had
flattered themselves with the hopes of attaining a divine knowledge of all things. (Calmet)
Ver. 6. Woman saw, or gazed on with desire and fond dalliance. (Menochius) --- Consulting only
her senses, which represented the fruit to her as very desirable, and caused her to give credit to the devil's insinuations,
rather than to the express word of God. Do not unbelievers the like, when they refuse to admit the real presence and transubstantiation,
though they cannot be ignorant, that this way of proceeding always leads to ruin. --- Her husband, who, instead of
reproving her for her rashness, did eat, through excessive fondness, not being able to plead ignorance, or that he
was deceived. "Earth trembled from her entrails, sky loured, and muttering thunder, some sad drops wept at completing of the
mortal sin." --- (Original [Origen?], &c.; [Milton,] Paradise Lost, ix. 1000.) (Haydock) --- (Genesis ii. 14.) In what
light soever we consider the fault of this unhappy pair, it is truly enormous: the precept was so easy and just, the attempt
to be like God in knowledge so extravagant, that nothing but pride could have suggested such woeful disobedience. By the
disobedience of one man, many were made sinners, Romans v. 19. This ruin of himself, and of all his posterity, Adam could
not hide from his own eyes, chap. ii. 17. (Calmet)
Ver. 7. And the eyes, &c. Not that they were blind before, (for the woman saw that the tree
was fair to the eyes, ver. 6.) nor yet that their eyes were opened to any more perfect knowledge of good; but only
to the unhappy experience of having lost the good of original grace and innocence, and incurred the dreadful evil
of sin. From whence followed a shame of their being naked; which they minded not before; because being now stript of original
grace, they quickly began to be subject to the shameful rebellions of the flesh. (Challoner) --- Behold the noble acquisition
of experimental knowledge! This is supposed to have taken place about a week after they had enjoyed the sweets of innocence
and of Paradise, that they might afterwards be moved to repentance, when they contrasted their subsequent misery with those
few golden days. They saw that they had received a dreadful wound, even in their natural perfections, and that their soul
was despoiled of grace, which, of themselves, they could never regain. O! what confusion must now have seized upon them! "Confounded
long they say, as stricken mute." (Milton) --- (Haydock)
Aprons, or they interwove tender branches covered with leaves round their middle; a practice, which even the
wild Indians and Americans observed, when they were discovered by Columbus. They will rise up in condemnation of those pretended
civilized nations, who, like the Greeks, could wrestle or bathe quite naked, without any sense of shame. (Haydock) --- Adam's
fig-tree, in Egypt, has leaves above a yard long, and two feet broad. (Calmet)
Ver. 8. Afternoon air. God's presence has often been indicated by an unusual wind. (3 Kings xix.
12; Acts ii. 2.) The sovereign judge will not suffer the day to pass over, without bringing our first parents to a sense of
their fault. They hid themselves, loving darkness now, because their works were evil.
Ver. 9. Where. In what state have thy sins placed thee, that thou shouldst flee from thy God? (St.
Ambrose, C. 14) Some think it was the Son of God who appeared on this occasion, St. Augustine; &c. or an Angel. (Calmet)
Ver. 10. Afraid. The just man is first to accuse himself: But Adam seeks for excuses in his sin:
he throws the blame on his wife, and ultimately on God. (Menochius) --- Thou gavest me. Heretics have since treated
the Sovereign Good with the like insolence; saying plainly, that God is the author of sin, and that the crime of Judas is
no less his work than the conversion of St. Paul. See Calvin's works, and many of the first reformers, Luther, &c. cited.
(Exodus viii. 15.) (Haydock)
Ver. 13. The serpent, which thou hast made so cunning, and placed with us, deceived me.
God deigns not to answer their frivolous excuses. (Menochius)
Ver. 14. Cursed. This curse falls upon the natural serpent, as the instrument of the devil; who
is also cursed at the same time by the Holy Ghost. What was natural to the serpent and to man in a state of innocence, (as
to creep, &c. to submit to the dominion of the husband, &c.) becomes a punishment after the fall. (St. Chrysostom)
--- There was no enmity, before, between man and any of God's creatures; nor were they noxious to him. (Tirinus) --- The devil
seems now to crawl, because he no longer aspires after God and heavenly things, but aims at wickedness and mean deceit. (Menochius)
Ver. 15. She shall crush. Ipsa, the woman: so divers of the fathers read this place, conformably
to the Latin: others read it ipsum, viz. the seed. The sense is the same: for it is by her seed, Jesus Christ,
that the woman crushes the serpent's head. (Challoner) --- The Hebrew text, as Bellarmine observes, is ambiguous: He mentions
one copy which had ipsa instead of ipsum; and so it is even printed in the Hebrew interlineary edition, 1572,
by Plantin, under the inspection of Boderianus. Whether the Jewish editions ought to have more weight with Christians, or
whether all the other manuscripts conspire against this reading, let others inquire. The fathers who have cited the old Italic
version, taken from the Septuagint agree with the Vulgate, which is followed by almost all the Latins; and hence we may argue
with probability, that the Septuagint and the Hebrew formerly acknowledged ipsa, which now moves the indignation of
Protestants so much, as if we intended by it to give any divine honour to the blessed Virgin Mary. We believe, however, with
St. Epiphanius, that "it is no less criminal to vilify the holy Virgin, than to glorify her above measure." We know that all
the power of the mother of God is derived from the merits of her Son. We are no otherwise concerned about the retaining of
ipsa, she, in this place, than in as much as we have yet no certain reason to suspect its being genuine. As some words
have been corrected in the Vulgate since the Council of Trent by Pope Sixtus V. and others, by Pope Clement VIII. so, if,
upon stricter search, it be found that it, and not she, is the true reading, we shall not hesitate to admit
the correction: but we must wait in the mean time respectfully, till our superiors determine. (Haydock) Kemnitzius certainly
advanced a step too far, when he said that all the ancient fathers read ipsum. Victor, Avitus, St. Augustine, St. Gregory,
&c. mentioned in the Douay Bible, will convict him of falsehood. Christ crushed the serpent's head by his death, suffering
himself to be wounded in the heel. His blessed mother crushed him likewise, by her co-operation in the mystery of the Incarnation;
and by rejecting, with horror, the very first suggestions of the enemy, to commit even the smallest sin. (St. Bernard, ser.
2, on Missus est.) "We crush," says St. Gregory, Mor. 1. 38, "the serpent's head, when we extirpate from our heart
the beginnings of temptation, and then he lays snares for our heel, because he opposes the end of a good action with greater
craft and power." The serpent may hiss and threaten; he cannot hurt, if we resist him. (Haydock)
Ver. 16. And thy conceptions. Septuagint, "thy groaning." The multifarious sorrows of childbearing,
must remind all mothers (the blessed Virgin Mary alone excepted) of what they have incurred by original sin. If that had not
taken place, they would have conceived without concupiscence, and brought forth without sorrow. (St. Augustine, City of God
xiv. 26.)--- Conceptions are multiplied on account of the many untimely deaths, in our fallen state. Power,
which will sometimes be exercised with rigor. (Haydock) --- Moses here shews the original and natural subjection of wives
to their husbands, in opposition to the Egyptians, who, to honour Isis, gave women the superiority by the marriage contract.
(Diodorus i. 2.) (Calmet)
Ver. 17. Thy work, sin; thy perdition is from thyself: this is all that man can challenge
for his own. (Haydock)
Ver. 18. Thorns, &c. These were created at first, but they would have easily been kept under:
now they grow with surprising luxuriancy, and the necessaries of life can be procured only with much labour. All men here
are commanded to work, each in his proper department. The Jews were careful to teach their children some trade or useful occupation.
St. Paul made tents, and proclaims, If any man will not work, neither let him eat, 2 Thessalonians iii. 10. (Calmet)
Ver. 19. Dust, as to the visible part; and thy soul created out of nothing. This might serve to
correct that pride, by which Adam had fallen; and the same humbling truths are repeated to us by the Church every Ash-Wednesday,
to guard us against the same contagion, the worm of pride, to which we are all so liable. Thus Adam was again assured that
he should die the death, with which God had threatened him, and which the devil had told Eve would not be inflicted. (Ver.
4.) God created man incorruptible, (inexterminabilem, immortal). But by the envy of the devil, death came
into the world, Wisdom ii. 23. (Haydock)
Ver. 20. The living. Hebrew chai, one who brings forth alive, (Symmachus,) or one who imparts
life, in which she was a figure of the blessed Virgin Mary. (Calmet) --- Adam gives his wife this new name, in gratitude for
not being cut off by death on the very day of his transgression, as he had every reason to expect and fear he would have been,
chap. ii. 17. (Haydock) --- The printed Hebrew reads here, and in many other place, Eva, he, instead of Eja, she;
thus, He was the mother, ver. 12, he gave, &c. an inaccuracy unknown to the Samaritan and the best manuscripts
Ver 21. Of skins, which Adam took from the beasts which he offered in sacrifice to his merciful
Judge, testifying thereby that he had forfeited his life, and uniting himself to that sacrifice of the woman's promised seed,
by which alone he believed the sin of the world was to be expiated. (Haydock)
Ver. 22. Behold Adam, &c. This was spoken by way of reproaching him with his pride, in affecting
a knowledge that might make him like to God. (Challoner) --- "These are the words of God, not insulting over man, but deterring
others from an imitation of his pride." (St. Augustine, de Gen. xi. 39.) --- For ever. The sentence is left imperfect:
(Calmet) but by driving man from Paradise, God sufficiently shewed how he would prevent him from eating of the tree of life,
(Haydock) which Adam had not yet found. As he was now condemned to be miserable on earth, God, in mercy, prevented him from
tasting of that fruit, which would have rendered his misery perpetual. (Menochius) --- He would suffer him to die, that, by
death, he might come, after a life of 930 years, spent in sorrow and repentance, to the enjoyment of himself. (Haydock) ---
Lest perhaps. God does not exercise his absolute power, or destroy free-will, but makes use of ordinary means and precautions,
to effect his designs. (St. Augustine) (Worthington)
Ver. 24. Cherubims. Angels of the highest order, and of a very complex figure, unlike any one living
creature. Theodoret supposes that God forced Adam to retire from that once charming abode, by the apparition of hideous spectres.
The devils were also hindered from coming hither, lest they should pluck the fruit of the tree of life, and by promising immortality,
should attract men to their service. The flaming sword, might be a fire rising out of the earth, of which Grotius thinks
the pits, near Babylon, are still vestiges. These dreadful indications of the divine wrath would probably disappear, when
Paradise had lost its superior beauty, and became confounded with the surrounding countries --- Thus we have seen how rapidly
Moses describes the creation of all things, the fall of man, and the promised redemption. But in these few lines, we discover
a solution of the many difficulties which have perplexed the learned, respecting these most important subjects. We know that
the world is not the effect of chance, but created and governed by divine Providence. We are no longer at a loss to explain
the surprising contrast of good and evil, observable in the same man. When we have attentively considered the Old Adam and
the New[New Adam, Jesus Christ], we find a clue to lead us through all the labyrinths of our Holy Religion. We could wish,
perhaps, for a greater detail in Moses, but he left the rest to be supplied by tradition. He has thrown light enough upon
the subjects, to guide the well-disposed, and has left sufficient darkness to humble and to confound the self-conceited and
wicked, who love darkness rather than the light. (Calmet) --- Concerning the transactions of these early times, parents would
no doubt be careful to instruct their children, by word of mouth, before any of the Scriptures were written; and Moses might
derive much information from the same source, as a very few persons formed the chain of tradition, when they lived so many
hundred years. Adam would converse with Mathusalem, who knew Sem, as the latter lived in the days of
Abram. Isaac, Joseph, and Amram, the father of Moses, were contemporaries: so that seven persons
might keep up the memory of things which had happened 2500 years before. But to entitle these accounts to absolute authority,
the inspiration of God intervenes; and thus we are convinced, that no word of sacred writers can be questioned. (Haydock)
Text & Cross-references:
The serpent's craft. The fall of our first parents.
Their punishment. The promise of a Redeemer.
1 Now the serpent was more subtle
than any of the beasts of the earth which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman: Why hath God commanded you, that
you should not eat of every tree of paradise?
2 And the woman answered him, saying:
Of the fruit of the trees that are in paradise we do eat:
3 But of the fruit of the tree which
is in the midst of paradise, God hath commanded us that we should not eat: and that we should not touch it, lest perhaps we
4 And the serpent said to the woman:
*No, you shall not die the death.
5 For God doth know that in what
day soever you shall eat thereof, your eyes shall be opened: and you shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.
6 And the woman saw that the tree
was good to eat, and fair to the eyes, and delightful to behold: *and she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave
to her husband, who did eat.
7 And the eyes of them both were
opened: and when they perceived themselves to be naked, they sewed together fig-leaves, and made themselves aprons.
8 And when they heard the voice of
the Lord God walking in paradise at the afternoon air, Adam and his wife hid themselves from the face of the Lord God, amidst
the trees of paradise.
9 And the Lord God called Adam, and
said to him: Where art thou?
10 And he said: I heard thy voice
in paradise; and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself.
11 And he said to him: And who hath
told thee that thou wast naked, but that thou hast eaten of the tree whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldst not eat?
12 And Adam said: The woman, whom
thou gavest me to be my companion, gave me of the tree, and I did eat.
13 And the Lord God said to the woman:
Why hast thou done this? And she answered: The serpent deceived me, and I did eat.
14 And the Lord God said to the serpent:
Because thou hast done this thing, thou art cursed among all cattle, and the beasts of the earth: upon thy breast shalt thou
go, *and earth shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.
15 I will put enmities between thee
and the woman, and thy seed and her seed: she shall crush thy head, and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel.*
16 To the woman also he said: I will
multiply thy sorrows, and thy conceptions: in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children, and thou shalt be under thy husband's
power, and he shall have dominion over thee.
17 And to Adam he said: Because thou
hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee, that thou shouldst not eat,
cursed is the earth in thy work: with labour and toil shalt thou eat thereof all the days of thy life.
18 Thorns and thistles shall it bring
forth to thee, and thou eat the herbs of the earth.
19 In the sweat of thy face shalt
thou eat bread till thou return to the earth out of which thou wast taken: for dust thou art, and into dust thou shalt return.*
20 *And Adam called the name of his
wife Eve: because she was the mother of all the living.
21 And the Lord God made for Adam
and his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.
22 And he said: Behold Adam is become
as one of us, knowing good and evil: now therefore lest perhaps he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and
eat, and live for ever.
23 And the Lord God sent him out
of the paradise of pleasure, to till the earth from which he was taken.
24 And he cast out Adam: and placed
before the paradise of pleasure Cherubims, and a flaming sword, turning every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.
4: 2 Corinthians xi. 3.
6: Ecclesiasticus xxv. 33.; 1 Timothy
14: Isaias lxv. 25.; Micheas vii.
17.; Isaias xlix. 23.; Psalm lxxii. 9.
15: Apocalypse xii.; Genesis xlix.
17.; 1 Corinthians xiv. 34.
19: Genesis xviii. 27.
20: Psalms cii. 14. and xxii.[xxi.?]
16.; Ecclesiastes vii. 12.[xii. 7.?]