Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Through God. Hebrew may signify also "even God," as if she thought this was the promised
seed, who, as Onkelos paraphrases it, would serve the Lord. (Calmet) --- So little could she foresee the future conduct of
Cain, whose name may be derived either from kone, possession and acquisition, or from kun, lamentation.
The latter interpretation would have been better verified by the event, and the name of Abel, vanity, or sorrow,
for which his parents allege no reason, might also have been reversed, on account of his justice, for which he is canonized
by Christ himself, and declared the Just. Pious and significant names were imposed by either parent. Cain was the second
man. He was not conceived till after the fall, and was therefore the first born in original sin. (Haydock)
Ver. 4. Had respect. That is, shewed his acceptance of his sacrifice (as coming from a heart full
of devotion): and that we may suppose, by some visible token, such as sending fire from heaven upon his offerings. (Challoner)
--- The offerings of Cain are mentioned without any approbation: those of Abel are the firstlings and fat, or
the very best; by which he testified, that he acknowledged God for his first beginning. Sacrifice is due to God alone, and
to Him it has always been offered in the Church. We have the happiness to offer that truly eucharistic sacrifice to God, of
which those of ancient times were only figures. What sacrifice can our erring brethren shew? (Worthington; Calmet)
Ver. 7. Over it. This is a clear proof of free-will. To destroy its force, Protestants translate
over him, as if Cain should still retain his privilege of the first-born, notwithstanding all his wickedness, and should
rule over Abel, who would willingly submit, "unto thee his desire," &c. But God had made no mention of Abel. The whole
discourse is about doing well or ill; and Cain is encouraged to avoid the stings of conscience, by altering his conduct, as
it was in his power, how strongly soever his passions might solicit him to evil. (Haydock) --- The Hebrew is understood by
Onkelos, and the Targum of Jerusalem, in the sense of the Vulgate. The latter reads, "If thou correct thy proceedings in this
life, thou wilt receive pardon in the next world. But if thou do not penance for thy sin, it shall remain till the day of
the great judgment, and it shall stay, lying at the door of thy heart. But I have given thee power to govern thy concupiscence:
thou shalt sway it, either to embrace good or evil." Calmet shews that the Hebrew perfectly admits of this sense. St. Augustine
will not allow of the turn which the Manichees gave it. "Thou shalt have dominion over (illius.) What? thy brother!
(absit) by no means: over what then, but sin? (City of God xv. 7.) Protestants formerly abandoned the translation of
1579, (which they have again resumed) and translated better, "unto thee shall be the desire thereof, and thou shalt rule over
it," which R. Abenezra explains also of sin. To which of these editions, all given by royal authority, will Protestants adhere?
Luther wrote a book against free-will, and Calvin would not admit the very name. But we, with all antiquity, must cry out
with St. Jerome, contra Jov. 2: "God made us with free-will, neither are we drawn by necessity to virtue or vice; else where
there is necessity, there is neither damnation nor reward." (Worthington; Haydock)
Ver. 8. Let us go forth abroad. These words are now wanting in the Hebrew; being omitted, according
to Kennicott, since the days of Aquila 130; they are found in the Samaritan copy and version, in the Septuagint, &c. (Haydock)
--- The Masorets place a mark, as if something were defective here, and in 27 other verses, or in 25 at least. (Haydock) ---
Abel's violent death was a figure of that of Jesus Christ, inflicted for the like cause. See Hebrews xii. 2. (Calmet) ---
In consequence of these crimes, Cain separated from the Church, and the Jews became no longer God's people: both Cain and
the Jews became vagabonds. (Haydock) --- The Targum of Jerusalem observes, that Cain talked against God's providence and the
future world, which Abel hearing with marked indignation, Cain took occasion to kill him. (Worthington)
Ver. 13. My iniquity, &c. Like Judas, Cain despairs. The Rabbins make him complain of the rigour
of God's judgment, "My sin (or punishment) is too great to be borne." I must then be driven from the land of my nativity,
from the society of my brethren and parents, from thy presence, for ever. Why do I then live? Let the first man I meet, kill
Ver. 14. Every one that findeth me, shall kill me. His guilty conscience made him fear his own
brothers, and nephews; of whom, by this time, there might be a good number upon the earth: which had now endured near 130
years; as may be gathered from Genesis v. 3, compared with chap. iv. 25, though in the compendious account given in the Scripture,
only Cain and Abel are mentioned. (Challoner) --- Cain is little concerned about any thing but the loss of life. (Menochius)
Ver. 15. Set a mark, &c. The more common opinion of the interpreters of holy writ, supposes
this mark to have been a trembling of the body; or a horror and consternation in his countenance. (Challoner) --- God gave
this first murderer a reprieve, allowing him time for repentance; but he neglected it, and died a reprobate; having been,
during life, the head of an apostate church, and of the city of the devil, which has ever since opposed the city of God, and
the society of the faithful. Though all his posterity were drowned in the deluge, some were soon found, even in the family
of Noe, who stood up for the wretched pre-eminence in wickedness and rebellion, against the truth. See St. Augustine; Worthington;
Ver. 16. A fugitive, according to his sentence. Hebrew nod, which the Septuagint have taken
for a proper name. "In the land of Naid, over against Eden," (Haydock) or in the fields of Nyse, in Hyrcania, to the
east of Eden and Armenia. (Calmet)
Ver. 17. His wife. She was a daughter of Adam, and Cain's own sister; God dispensing with such
marriages in the beginning of the world, as mankind could not otherwise be propagated. --- He built a city, viz. In
process of time, when his race was multiplied, so as to be numerous enough to people it. For in the many hundred years he
lived, his race might be multiplied even to millions. (Challoner) --- The Hanuchta, which Ptolemy places in Susiana, (Calmet)
may perhaps have been built after the flood, in the same place. Josephus says, Cain was the first who fortified a city; designing
it for a retreat, where he might keep the fruits of his robberies, Antiquities 1. 3. Peirere founds his ill-concerted system
of Preadamites, or of men existing before Adam, on the history of Cain exercising husbandry, building a city, &c.;
as if there were any difficulty in supposing, that the arts would have made some progress in the lapse of above a century.
Ver. 19. Two wives. Lamech first transgressed the law of having only one wife at a time. (Chap.
ii. 24.) None before the deluge is mentioned as having followed his example, even among the abandoned sons of men. Abraham,
the father of the faithful, and some others, after that event, when the age of man was shortened, and the number of the true
servants of God very small, were dispensed with by God, who tolerated the custom of having many wives at the same time among
the Jews, till our Saviour brought things back to the ancient standard. (Matthew xix. 4.) And why do we excuse the patriarchs,
while we condemn Lamech? Because the one being associated with the wicked, gives us reason to judge unfavourably of him, while
Abraham is constantly mentioned in Scripture with terms of approbation and praise, and therefore we have no right to pass
sentence of condemnation upon him, as some Protestants have done, after the Manichees. Hence the fathers defend the one, and
reject the other with abhorrence. (Haydock) --- Tertullian (Monog. c. 5.) and St. Jerome, contra Jovin. 1, says, "Lamech,
first of all, a bloody murderer, divided one flesh between two wives." It was never lawful, says Pope Innocent III. contra
Gaudemus, for any one to have many wives at once, unless leave was given by divine revelation;" and St. Augustine joins
with him in defending the patriarchs, by this reason, "When it was the custom, it was not a sin."
Ver. 22. Noema, who is supposed to have invented the art of spinning. (Calmet) --- All these worthy
people were distinguished for their proficiency in the arts, while they neglected the study of religion and virtue. (Haydock)
--- The inventors of arts among the Greeks lived mostly after the siege of Troy. (Calmet)
Ver. 23. Said. This is the most ancient piece of poetry with which we are acquainted. (Fleury)
--- Lamech may be considered as the father of poets. (Haydock) --- I have slain a man, &c. It is the tradition
of the Hebrews, that Lamech in hunting slew Cain, mistaking him for a wild beast: and that having discovered what he had done,
he beat so unmercifully the youth, by whom he was led into that mistake, that he died of the blows. (Challoner) --- St. Jerome,
9. 1. ad Dam. acknowledges the difficulty of this passage, on which Origen wrote two whole books. (Worthington)
Ver. 24. Seventy times. A similar expression occurs, Matthew xviii. 22, to denote a great but indefinite
number. God had promised to revenge the murder of Cain seven fold, though he had sinned voluntarily; so Lamech hopes that,
as he had acted by mistake, and blinded by passion, in striking the stripling, the son of Tubalcain, he would deserve to be
protected still more from falling a prey to the fury of any other. But many reject this tradition as fabulous, unknown to
Philo, Josephus, &c. Moses no where mentions the death of Cain. Some, therefore, understand this passage with an interrogation;
as if, to convince his wives that his sin was not so enormous as was supposed, he should say, Do not think of leaving me.
What! have I killed a young man, as Cain did Abel, and still he is suffered to live unmolested; or have I beaten any one so
that I should be punished? Onkelos, in effect, puts a negation to the same purport, "I have not killed, &c.:" (Calmet)
others understand this passage, as if Lamech considered his crimes as much more grievous than even those of Cain. (Tirinus)
Ver. 26. Began to call upon, &c. Not that Adam and Seth had not called upon God before the
birth of Enos, but that Enos used more solemnity in the worship and invocation of God. (Challoner) --- He directed all his
thoughts towards heaven, being reminded by his own name, which signifies one afflicted, that he could look for no solid happiness
on earth. Seth had brought him up, from his infancy, in these pious sentiments, and his children were so docile to his instructions,
that they began to be known in the world for their extraordinary piety, and were even styled the Sons of God, chap.
vi. 2. (Haydock) --- Religion was not a human invention, but many ceremonies have been adopted, at different times, to make
an impression on the minds of the people. Before Enos, the heads of families had officiated in their own houses; now, perhaps,
they met together in places consecrated to the divine service, and sounded forth the praises of the Most High. Enos was probably
most conspicuous for his zeal on these occasions: at least, a new degree of fervour manifested itself in his days. On the
other hand, "the name of the Lord began to be profaned" about this time, as the Rabbin understand this passage, by the introduction
of idolatry; which is a common effect of a dissolute life, which many began now to lead, Wisdom xiv. 12. (Calmet) --- The
beginning of fornication is the devising of idols. We have, nevertheless, no certain proof of idols being introduced till
many years after the deluge. (Haydock)
Text & Cross-references:
The history of Cain
1 And Adam knew Eve his wife; who
conceived and brought forth *Cain, saying: I have gotten a man through God.
2 And again she brought forth his
brother Abel. And Abel was a shepherd, and Cain a husbandman.
3 And it came to pass after many
days, that Cain offered, of the fruits of the earth, gifts to the Lord.
4 *Abel also offered of the firstlings
of his flock, and of their fat: and the Lord had respect to Abel, and to his offerings.
5 But to Cain and his offerings
he had no respect: and Cain was exceedingly angry, and his countenance fell.
6 And the Lord said to him: Why
art thou angry? and why is thy countenance fallen?
7 If thou do well, shalt thou not
receive? but if ill, shall not sin forthwith be present at the door? but the lust thereof shall be under thee, and thou shalt
have dominion over it.
8 *And Cain said to Abel his brother:
Let us go forth abroad. And when they were in the field, Cain rose up against his brother Abel, and slew him.**
9 And the Lord said to Cain: Where
is thy brother Abel? And he answered: I know not: am I my brother's keeper?
10 And he said to him: What hast
thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth to me from the earth.
11 Now therefore cursed shalt thou
be upon the earth, which hath opened her mouth and received the blood of thy brother at thy hand.
12 When thou shalt till it, it shall
not yield to thee its fruit: a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be upon the earth.
13 And Cain said to the Lord: My
iniquity is greater than that I may deserve pardon.
14 Behold thou dost cast me out
this day from the face of the earth, and from thy face I shall be hid, and I shall be a vagabond and a fugitive on the earth:
every one therefore that findeth me, shall kill me.
15 And the Lord said to him: No,
it shall not be so: but whosoever shall kill Cain, shall be punished seven-fold. And the Lord set a mark upon Cain, that whosoever
found him should not kill him.
16 And Cain went out from the face
of the Lord, and dwelt as a fugitive on the earth at the east side of Eden.
17 And Cain knew his wife, and she
conceived, and brought forth Henoch: and he built a city, and called the name thereof by the name of his son Henoch.
18 And Henoch begot Irad, and Irad
begot Maviael, and Maviael begot Mathusael, and Mathusael begot Lamech,
19 Who took two wives: the name
of the one was Ada, and the name of the other Sella.
20 And Ada brought forth Jabel:
who was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of herdsmen.
21 And his brother's name was Jubal:
he was the father of them that play upon the harp and the organs.
22 Sella also brought forth Tubalcain,
who was a hammerer and artificer in every work of brass and iron. And the sister of Tubalcain was Noema.
23 And Lamech said to his wives
Ada and Sella: Hear my voice, ye wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech: for I have slain a man to the wounding of myself,
and a stripling to my own bruising.
24 Seven-fold vengeance shall be
taken for Cain: but for Lamech seventy times seven-fold.*
25 Adam also knew his wife again:
and she brought forth a son, and called his name *Seth, saying: God hath given me another seed for Abel, whom Cain slew.
26 But to Seth also was born a son,
whom he called Enos: this man began to call upon the name of the Lord.
1: Year of the World 2, Year before
4: Hebrews xi. 4.
8: Year of the World 128, Year
before Christ 3876. --- ** Wisdom x. 3.; Matthew xxiii. 35.; 1 John iii. 12.; Jude i. 11.
24: Matthew xviii. 22.
25: Year of the World 130, Year
before Christ 3874.