Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 2. Of all clean. The distinction of clean and unclean beasts, appears to have been made before
the law of Moses, which was not promulgated till the year of the world 2514. (Challoner). --- Clean: not according
to the law of Moses, which was not yet given, but such as tradition had described --- fit for sacrifice; (Menochius) though
they might be of the same species as were deemed clean in the law, which ratified the ancient institution. --- And seven:
(Hebrew) simply seven, three couple and an odd male, for sacrifice after the deluge: one couple was to breed, the other
two perhaps for food. (Haydock) --- Some imagine, that there were fourteen unclean and four clean animals, of every species,
in the ark, because the Samaritan, Septuagint, and Vulgate read, "seven and seven." (Origen, &c.) --- But our Saviour,
sending the Disciples to preach two and two, did not appoint a company of four to go together, but only of two, as
is generally allowed, Mark vi. 7. (Calmet)
Ver. 11. Seventeenth day. On the tenth, God had given the last warning to the wretched and obstinate
sinners, to whom Noe had been preaching, both by word and by building the ark, for 120 years; all in vain. This second
month is, by some, supposed to be the month of May; by others, that of November. Usher makes Noe enter the ark on the
18th December [in the year of the world] 1656. The waters decreased May 17, mountains appear July 31, he sends out the raven
September 8, and leaves the ark December 29, after having remained in it a year and ten days, according to the antediluvian
computation, or a full year of 365 days. The systems of those pretended philosophers, who would represent this flood as only
partial, affecting the countries which were then inhabited, are all refuted by the plain narration of Moses. What part of
the world could have been secure, when the waters prevailed fifteen cubits above the highest mountains? To give a natural
cause only for this miraculous effect, would be nugatory: but as waters covered the earth at first, so they surely might again,
by the power of God. (Haydock) --- Fountains and flood-gates. These are the two natural causes which Moses assigns
for the deluge, the waters below, and those above in the sky or firmament. Heaven is said to be shut when it does not rain,
(Luke iv. 25.) so it is here opened, and flood-gates, or torrents of rain, pour down incessantly. But God attributes
not the deluge to these causes alone; he sufficiently intimates that it would be miraculous, (ver. 4, I will rain,)
and still more emphatically, chap. vi. 17, Behold I. Hebrew, "I, even I myself, do bring on a flood of waters."
The idea which Moses give of the flood, corresponds with that which he before gave of chaos, when earth and water were undistinguished
in one confused mass, chap. i. 6. The Hebrews look upon it as a continual miracle, that the earth is not always deluged, being
founded, as they represent it, on the waters, Jeremias v. 22. Calmet and others have proved, both from Scripture and from
philosophical arguments, the universality of the deluge, against Isaac Vossius, &c. (Haydock)
Ver. 16. The Lord shut him in, by an angel besmearing the door with pitch, to prevent the waters
from penetrating, while Noe did the like in the inside. (Calmet) --- Thus God supplies our wants when we are not able to provide
for ourselves, and though he could do all by himself, yet he requires us to co-operate with him, and often makes use of secondary
Ver. 24. Days: counting from the end of the forty days, when the deluge was at its height. (Calmet)
--- In all the histories of past ages, there is nothing so terrible as this event. What became of all those myriads of human
beings who perished on this occasion? We know not. Some have charitably supposed, that, although the far greater part perished
everlastingly, a few who had been incredulous while Noe preached, opened their eyes at last, when it was too late to
save their bodies, and by sincere repentance rescued their souls from the flames, and were consigned to do penance, for a
time, in the other world. These heard the preaching of Jesus Christ, or believed in his redemption, while they were yet living,
and so deserved to partake of his mercies, and joyfully beheld his sacred person when he came to visit them in their prison
of purgatory. 1 Peter iii. 19, He came and preached to those spirits that were in prison: which had been sometime incredulous,
when they waited for the patience of God in the days of Noe, when the ark was a building: wherein a few, that is eight souls,
were saved from drowning by water. Whereunto baptism, being of the like form, now saves you also, &c. See F.
S. Bellarmine, &c. In these last words of St. Peter, we may also notice, that the ark was a figure of baptism, which is
so necessary, that without its reception, or desire of it at least, no man can be saved. It is also a figure of the cross,
and of the one true Church, as the Fathers remark, with St. Augustine, City of God xv. i; Menochius &c.; St. Gregory,
hom. 12 in Ezech. &c. --- This is so striking that it deserves to be seriously considered. It was only one, though
God could have ordered many smaller vessels to be made ready, perhaps with less inconvenience to Noe, that we might reflect,
out of the Church the obstinate will surely perish. St. Jerome, ep. ad Dam.: In this ark all that were truly holy,
and some imperfect, like Cham, were contained, clean beasts and unclean dwelt together, that we need not wonder if some Catholics
be a disgrace to their name. The ark had different partitions, to remind us of the various orders of Clergy and Laity
in the Church, with one chief governor, the Pope, like Noe in the ark. It was strong, visible, &c., and pitched all over
with the durable cement, bitumen, and riding triumphant amid the storms, the envy of all who were out of it, till at
last it settled upon a rock. So the Church is built on a rock, against which the gates of hell shall not prevail: she
is not less obvious to the sincere seeker, than a city built on the top of the highest mountain, &c. We might here take
a retrospective view of the chief occurrences and personages of the former world; we should observe the same order of the
things from the beginning, --- the conflict of virtue and vice, the preservation of the true faith and worship of God among
a few chosen souls, who preferred to be persecuted by worldlings, rather than to offend God. They contended earnestly for
the faith once delivered to the Saints, to Adam and Eve, once innocent, and afterwards penitent. We behold original sin,
and the promised remedy for mankind; while the rebel angels are abandoned, without redress. There was kept up a communion
of saints: sacrifice to the one God was performed generally by the heads of families, who were priests in the law of nature.
Even Cain, though a bad man, through hypocrisy, chose to offer sacrifice before he had quite broken off from the society of
the faithful, and resolved to become the father of all excommunicated persons, and of all seceders. (Chap. iv. 16.) He was
admonished by God that he had free will, and might merit a reward by a different conduct. His sentence, as well as that pronounced
upon Adam, and upon all mankind, before the flood, reminds us of the particular and general judgment; as the translation of
Henoch sets before us the happy state of the blessed, and the immortality, of which it was an earnest. See Douay Bible, where
the chief mysteries of faith are pointed out as the creed of the Antediluvians. Even the Blessed Trinity was insinuated, or
shewn to them, at a distance, in various texts: the unity and indissolubility of marriage were clearly expressed; the true
Church continued in Noe, while the chain of schismatics and heretics was broken, and Cain's progeny destroyed. In this period
of time, we may discover what the ancients so often describe respecting the four ages: --- the golden age is most perfectly
found in Paradise; but only for a few days, or perhaps only a few hours, during which our first parents preserved their innocence.
The silver age may have lasted rather longer, till the murder of Abel, or 128 years, when Cain began to disturb the
peace of the world. From that time, till the giants make their appearance, we may reckon the age of brass. But that
of iron had continued for many years before the flood. The like deterioration of morals we may discover after the deluge,
and again after the renovation of the world, by the preaching of the gospel. For some time after these two great events, things
bore a pleasing aspect; Noe was busy in offering sacrifice to God, Christians were all one heart and one soul, enjoying all
things in common, and God gave a blessing to the earth, and confirmed his covenant with men. Then Cham, Nemrod, and Babel
appear, heresies in the new law break forth, and disturb the lovely harmony of mankind: but still a sufficient number preserve
their integrity, till about the days of Abraham and Arius, in their respective periods, and may be said to have lived in the
silver age, when compared with the brazen insolence of the great majority of those who came after. The iron
age of these two periods, may be dated from the persecution of Epiphanes against the Jews, when so many apostatized from the
faith, and from that much more terrible persecution which will be raised against Christians by Antichrist, the man of sin,
(of which the former was a type) when the charity of many shall grow cold, and Christ will hardly find faith upon the earth.
To that age may justly be applied, those strong expressions of disapprobation which God made use of before the flood, chap.
vi. 3, 6, 12. He will punish the crimes of that age with a deluge of fire, and say, The end of all flesh is come
before me, &c., ver. 13. Time shall be no longer, Apocalypse x. 6. (Haydock)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Noe with his family go into the ark. The deluge overflows
1 And the Lord said to him: Go in, thou and all thy house, into the ark:
for thee I have seen just before me in this generation.*
2 Of all clean beasts take seven and seven, the male and the female.
3 But of the beasts that are unclean two and two, the male and the female.
Of the fowls also of the air seven and seven, the male and the female: that seed may be saved upon the face of the whole earth.
4 For yet a while, and after seven days, I will rain upon the earth forty
days and forty nights: and I will destroy every substance that I have made, from the face of the earth.
5 And Noe did all things which the Lord had commanded him.
6 And he was six hundred years old, when the waters of the flood overflowed
7 *And Noe went in and his sons, his wife and the wives of his sons with
him into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.
8 And of beasts clean and unclean, and of fowls, and of every thing that
moveth upon the earth,
9 Two and two went in to Noe into the ark, male and female, as the Lord
had commanded Noe.
10 And after seven days were passed, the waters of the flood overflowed
11 In the six hundredth year of the life of Noe,* in the second month,
in the seventeenth day of the month, all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the flood-gates of heaven were
12 And the rain fell upon the earth forty days and forty nights.
13 In the self-same day Noe, and Sem, and Cham, and Japheth, his sons:
his wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, went into the ark.
14 They and every beast according to its kind, and all the cattle in
their kind, and every thing that moveth upon the earth, according to its kind, and every fowl according to its kind, all
birds, and all that fly,
15 Went in to Noe into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein was
the breath of life.
16 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God
had commanded him: and the Lord shut him in on the outside.
17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth: and the waters increased,
and lifted up the ark on high from the earth.
18 For they overflowed exceedingly: and filled all on the face of the
earth: and the ark was carried upon the waters.
19 And the waters prevailed beyond measure upon the earth: and all the
high mountains under the whole heaven were covered.
20 The water was fifteen cubits higher than the mountains which it covered.
21 *And all flesh was destroyed that moved upon the earth, both of fowl
and of cattle, and of beasts, and of all creeping things that creep upon the earth: and all men.
22 And all things wherein there is the breath of life on the earth, died.
23 And he destroyed all the substance that was upon the earth, from man
even to beast, and the creeping things and fowls of the air: and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noe only remained,
and they that were with him in the ark.
24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.
1: Hebrews xi. 7.; 2 Peter ii. 5.
7: Matthew xxiv. 37.; Luke xvii. 26.; 1 Peter iii. 20.
11: Year of the World 1656, Year before Christ 2348.
21: Wisdom x. 4.; Ecclesiasticus xxxix. 28.; 1 Peter iii. 20.