Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Wilderness.
Hebrew, "all the plain country (Araba) on the east."
Ver. 2. Galaad.
Sehon occupied from the middle of the torrent Arnon, as far as half of the mountains of Galaad, and the torrent Jaboc. (Calmet)
--- Og possessed the other half of the mountains northward, while the Ammonites had the eastern parts. (Haydock)
Ver. 3. Bethsimoth
is ten miles from Jericho, (Eusebius) near the Dead Sea, in the plains of Moab. (Calmet) --- Phasga. Asedoth lay at
the foot of this mountain, being well supplied with water. Subjacet Acedoth usque Phasga, the southern limits of Sehon's
dominions had "abundance of springs, as far as Phasga." (Haydock)
Ver. 4. Og.
See Numbers xxi. 33., and Deuteronomy iii. 11.
Ver. 7. Seir.
The same expression occurs, chap xi. 17. Hebrew, "from Baalgad, in the vale of Libanus, even unto Mount Halak, that goeth
up to Seir." (Haydock) --- Halak means, "bald or naked." It is not know what mountain it denotes. Josue, (Calmet) or the Israelites,
(Haydock) conquered "all the country beyond the Jordan, on the north from Baalgad, at the foot of Libanus, and from Hermon,
where these mountains meet, as far as the mountains of separation," which divide the country of Chanaan from that of Seir,
on the south of Judea. (Calmet) --- Baalgad was situated on the north western borders of this territory, not of the
Ver. 8. Asedoth,
or "in the springs," or valleys, ver. 3.
Ver. 14. Herma,
"a curse," where the Israelites defeated king Arad, Numbers xiv. 45., and xxi. 3.
Ver. 15. Odullam,
ten miles east of Eleutheropolis, and famous for the retreat of David. (Calmet)
Ver. 16. Bethel.
Josue perhaps slew the king, but did not take the city, Judges i. 22. (Menochius)
Ver. 18. Aphec.
A place of this name was in the tribe of Aser, another in that of Juda. --- Saron. Hebrew, "Lasharon;" probably Sarona,
(Acts ix. 35,) or a canton near Joppe. (Eusebius)
Ver. 19. Madon,
or Maron. Septuagint, chap xi. 1. This place is joined with Semeron, in Hebrew (ver. 20,) improperly. Perhaps it may
be the Meros, (Judges v. 23,) or Maronia, a city of Phœnicia.
Ver. 21. Thenac,
a city of the Levites, but seized afterwards by the Chanaanites, Judges i. 27. It was near the town of Legion, built by the
Romans. --- Mageddo, where Josias was overcome, 2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 22. (Calmet)
Ver. 22. Jachanan
was near Mount Carmel. Sometimes Josue specifies both the city and the canton, where it was situated; at other times
he only mentions the latter, as in the following verse.
Ver. 23. Galgal,
not where the Israelites had encamped, but that part which was afterwards called the Galilee of the Gentiles, in some
corner of which the king in question had fixed his residence. For we cannot suppose that he ruled over all that country, extending
from Tyre to beyond the Jordan. His people might probably be a mixed multitude of various nations, as Strabo (xvi.) observes,
that many parts of Palestine were peopled by men of this description.
Ver. 24. Thersa.
Here the kings of Israel kept their court, till Amri built Samaria, (Calmet) about nine miles more to the north. (Brocard.)
--- One. The two kings slain by Moses (Worthington) are not included. (Menochius)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
A list of the kings slain by Moses and Josue.
1 These are the kings whom the children of Israel slew, and possessed their
land, beyond the Jordan, towards the rising of the sun, from the torrent Arnon unto Mount Hermon, and all the east country
that looketh towards the wilderness.
2 Sehon, king of the Amorrhites, who dwelt in Hesebon, and had dominion
from Aroer, which is seated upon the bank of the torrent Arnon, and of the middle part in the valley, and of half Galaad,
as far as the torrent Jaboc, which is the border of the children of Ammon.
3 And from the wilderness to the sea of Ceneroth, towards the east, and
to the sea of the wilderness, which is the most salt sea, on the east side, by the way that leadeth to Bethsimoth: and on
the south side, that lieth under Asedoth, Phasga.
4 The border of Og, the king of Basan, of the remnant of the Raphaims,
who dwelt in Astaroth, and in Edrai, and had dominion in Mount Hermon, and in Salecha, and in all Basan, unto the borders
5 Of Gessuri, and Machati, and of half Galaad: the borders of Sehon, the
king of Hesebon.
6 Moses, the servant of the Lord, and the children of Israel slew them,
and Moses delivered their land in possession to the Rubenites, and Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasses.
7 These are the kings of the land, whom Josue and the children of Israel
slew, beyond the Jordan, on the west side, from Baalgad, in the field of Libanus, unto the mount, part of which goeth up into
Seir: and Josue delivered it in possession to the tribes of Israel, to every one their divisions,
8 As well in the mountains as in the plains, and the champaign countries.
In Asedoth, and in the wilderness, and in the south, was the Hethite and the Amorrhite, the Chanaanite and the Pherezite,
the Hevite and the Jebusite.
9 The king of Jericho, one; the king of Hai, which is on the side of Bethel,
10 The king of Jerusalem, one; the king of Hebron, one;
11 The king of Jerimoth, one; the king of Lachis, one;
12 The king of Eglon, one; the king of Gazer, one;
13 The king of Dabir, one; the king of Gader, one;
14 The king of Herma, one; the king of Hered, one;
15 The king of Lebna, one; the king of Odullam, one;
16 The king of Maceda, one; the king of Bethel, one;
17 The king of Taphua, one; the king of Opher, one;
18 The king of Aphec, one; the king of Saron, one;
19 The king of Madon, one; the king of Asor, one;
20 The king of Semeron, one; the king of Achsaph, one;
21 The king of Thenac, one; the king of Megeddo, one;
22 The king of Cades, one; the king of Jachanan, of Carmel, one;
23 The king of Dor, and of the province of Dor, one; the king of the nations
of Galgal, one;
24 The king of Thersa, one: all the kings, thirty and one.