Notes & Commentary:
It was customary with the Jews to bind and deliver over to the Roman governors those whom they had condemned in their own
councils; but we must not suppose that this was the first time they bound Jesus; for, as St. John informs us, when first
they apprehended him, they put manacles upon him. (Ven. Bede)
Ver. 2. It may
be remarked upon this answer of our Lord, that he was not unwilling to answer the questions put to him by the governor, who
condemned him contrary to his inclination, though he would not condescend to return an answer to the question of the high
priests, as they were not worthy of the favour. (Theophylactus)
Ver. 6. This
practice of releasing to the people any prisoner they might think proper, was instituted in order to captivate the will of
the people; which was most commonly done on the festival day, when the Jews were assembled from the different provinces to
Jerusalem. But that the blindness and malice of this people might be more apparent, the evangelist here describes the atrocious
wickedness of the man they preferred to the Son of God. (Gloss.)
Ver. 10. Since
envy put to death the Author of life, Jesus Christ, how watchful should all Christians be against every degree of that sin.
(St. Chrysostom, hom. xl. in Matt.)
Ver. 21. St.
Jerome thinks Alexander and Rufus were disciples of Christ, and on this account the name of their father is here expressed
(St. Jerome in Dionysius)
Ver. 23. St.
Matthew says mixed with gall; for gall is here used for bitterness, and wine that has myrrh in it is a very strong bitter;
although, perhaps, both gall and myrrh might have been ingredients to increase the bitterness. (St. Augustine) --- Or, in
the confusion that was occasioned, some might have offered him one thing, some another; one person giving vinegar and gall,
another wine mixed with myrrh. (Theophylactus) --- Wine mingled with myrrh may perhaps be used for vinegar. (St. Jerome) ---
This was given to criminals, to lessen their torments. Our Lord was pleased to taste the bitterness, but he would not permit
the relief which the admittance of the same into his stomach might have afforded. Thus also were the scriptures fulfilled:
they gave me gall for my food, and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink. (Psalm lxviii.) (Ven. Bede)
Ver. 25. St.
Mark is the only evangelist who says it was the third hour. St. John says it was the sixth. But these may easily be reconciled
by supposing that he was crucified towards the end of the third hour, that is, about eleven of the clock, or half-past eleven,
which being near the sixth hour, or twelve, the evangelist might say it was the sixth hour. (Nicholas of Lyra) --- The
third hour. The ancient account divided the day into four parts, which were named from the hour from which they began:
the first, third, sixth, and ninth hour. Our Lord was crucified a little before noon; before the third hour had quite
expired; but when the sixth hour was near at hand. (Challoner)
Ver. 26. It
was written on a board, or rather on parchment fixed to a board, (as Leipsius informs us) expressing the cause why he was
crucified, viz. because he was the King of the Jews. And, indeed, Pilate himself was fully persuaded that he was the
Messiah promised to the Jews: and though he knew him to be innocent, he connived the more at his death through fear lest he
might attempt something against the Roman empire, if he were permitted to continue. At the same time, by putting up his cause,
he wished to revenge himself of the Jews, for their importunity and obstinacy in compelling him, partly against his will,
to condemn him to death. For what could be more ignominious to the Jews than to see their king crucified at their own request,
and for no other reason than because he was their king, and they did not wish him to reign over them. Thus did they receive
the king for whose coming they had so long sighed, and from whom they had expected delivery from the Roman yoke, and the subjugation
of the whole world to their own power. (Sirinus)[perhaps (Tirinus) is meant here.]
Ver. 28. This
text of Isaias regards the Messias according to the very letter. (Bible de Vence)
Ver. 32. Afterwards
they saw Him arising out of the sepulchre whom they thought unable to descend from the cross. Where, O Jew, is thy infidelity?
I ask you yourselves. You shall be your own judges. How much more astonishing is it to be able, when dead, to rise again,
than, when living, to descend from the cross? You desired a small exertion of power, and a much greater is here performed:
but still your infidelity would not be cured. All have turned out of the way, all have become useless. (St. Jerome) --- If
the Scribes and Pharisees did not believe in Christ when he rose from the dead, neither would they have believed in him had
he left the cross. Though the scripture had foretold in many places that he was to suffer, Psalm xxi, They have dug my
hands and feet; and Psalm xcv, They shall look upon him whom they have pierced; He shall reign from the tree: (and
which St. Justin assures us the Jews had erased from the psalm) yet where can the Jews point out that it was foretold he should
descend from the cross? (Tirinus)
Ver. 39. The
centurion considered the crying out of our Saviour as an effect not of human, but divine power, since it generally happens
that people at the moment the soul quits the body are reduced to so debilitated a state, that they are scarce able to utter
the least word. Although Jesus was truly the natural, not the adoptive, Son of God, it is nevertheless probable that the centurion,
being a Gentile, did not speak in this manner as if he knew Jesus to be the natural Son of God. He did not know that the Son
of God was really true God, equal to the Father, but called him Son of God, as if adopted, on account of his extraordinary
sanctity; or, perhaps, he might have called him the Son of God, in order to oppose the Jews, who called our Saviour a blasphemer,
because he made himself the Son of God. (Dionysius)
Ver. 42. Ven.
Bede thinks the word parasceve is derived from the Greek paraskeue, signifying a preparation. It was
the day before the sabbath, on which the Jews were accustomed to prepare two meals, one for the parasceve, and another for
the sabbath; the Jews not being allowed to dress any meat on the latter day, on account of its great solemnity. The Jews learnt
this word of the Greeks, who lived among them in Jerusalem. (Ven. Bede)
Ver. 43. A
noble Decurion. The Decurions among the Romans were first called so as having ten men under them, as the centurions were
over a hundred. But some of the Decurions were also Counsellors in towns, as is here signified by the Greek
word Bouleutes. (Witham)
Ver. 46. According
to the description of those that have seen it, it is a kind of small chamber, the height of which, from top to bottom, is
eight feet and an inch, its length six feet and one inch, and its breadth fifteen feet ten inches. Its entrance, or vestibule,
which looks towards the east, is but four feet high, and two feet four inches wide. The place within, where our Lord's body
was laid, takes up a whole side of the cave. The stone which was laid to secure the door of the sepulchre is still remaining,
and according to Mr. Maundrell, is two yards and a quarter long, one broad, and one thick: but the particular parts of it
are not visible, being all incrusted over with white marble, except in five or six little places, where it is left bare to
receive the kisses and other devotions of pilgrims. (Mark Luke's Voyage to Asia Minor, Vol. II. p. 12. and Maundrell's Journey
from Aleppo to Jerusalem.)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The continuation of the history of the Passion.
1 And *straightway in the morning the chief priests, holding a consultation
with the ancients, and the Scribes, and the whole council, binding Jesus, led him away, and delivered him to Pilate.
2 And Pilate asked him: Art thou the king of the Jews: But he answering,
saith to him: Thou sayest it.
3 *And the chief priests accused him in many things.
4 And Pilate again asked him, saying: Answerest thou nothing? behold
in how many things they accuse thee.
5 But Jesus still answered nothing; so that Pilate wondered.
6 Now on the festival-day he was wont to release unto them one of the
prisoners, whomsoever they demanded.
7 And there was one called Barabbas, who was put in prison with seditious
men, who in the sedition had committed murder.
8 And when the multitude was come up, they began to desire that he
would do as he had always done to them.
9 And Pilate answered them, and said: Will you that I release to you
the king of the Jews?
10 For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him up through envy.
11 But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release
Barabbas to them.
12 *And Pilate again answering, saith to them: What will you then that
I do to the king of the Jews?
13 *But they again cried out: Crucify him.
14 And Pilate saith to them: Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried
out the more: Crucify him.
15 So Pilate being willing to satisfy the people, released to them Barabbas,
and delivered up Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.
16 *And the soldiers led him into the court of the palace, and they called
together the whole band.
17 And they clothe him with purple, and platting a crown of thorns, they
put it upon him.
18 And they began to salute him: Hail, king of the Jews!
19 And they struck his head with a reed: And they did spit on him, and
bowing their knees, they worshipped him.
20 And after they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him,
and put his own garments on him, and they led him out to crucify him.
21 *And they forced one Simon, a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out
of the country, the father of Alexander, and of Rufus, to take up his cross.
22 And they bring him into the place called Golgotha, which being
interpreted, is, The place of Calvary.
23 And they gave him to drink wine mingled with myrrh: but he took it
24 *And crucifying him, they divided his garments, casting lots upon
them what every man should take.
25 And it was the third hour, and they crucified him.
26 And the inscription of his cause was written over: The King
of the Jews.
27 And with him they crucify two thieves; the one on his right hand,
and the other on his left.
28 *And the Scripture was fulfilled, which saith: And with the wicked
he was reputed.
29 And they that passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying:
*Vah, thou that destroyest the temple of God, and in three days buildest it up again:
30 Save thyself, coming down from the cross.
31 In like manner also the chief priests, with the Scribes, mocking,
said one to another: He saved others, himself he cannot save.
32 Let Christ, the king of Israel, come down now from the cross, that
we may see and believe. And they that were crucified with him, reviled him.
33 And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole
earth, until the ninth hour.
34 And at the ninth hour, Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying:
*Eloi, Eloi, lamma sabacthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
35 And some of the standers-by hearing, said: Behold, he calleth Elias.
36 And one running, and filling a sponge with vinegar, and putting it
upon a reed, gave him to drink, saying: Stay, let us see if Elias come to take him down.
37 And Jesus having cried out with a loud voice, gave up the ghost.
38 And the veil of the temple was rent in two, from the top to the bottom.
39 And the centurion who stood over-against him, seeing, that crying
out in this manner, he had given up the ghost, said: Indeed this man was the Son of God.
40 *And there were also women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary
Magdalene, and Mary, the mother of James the less, and of Joseph; and Salome;
41 Who also, when he was in Galilee, followed him, *and ministered to
him, and many other women that came up with him to Jerusalem.
42 *And when evening was now come, (because it was the Parasceve, that
is, the day before the sabbath),
43 Joseph, of Arimathea, a noble counsellor, who was also himself looking
for the kingdom of God, came and went in boldly to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus.
44 But Pilate wondered that he should be already dead. And sending for
the centurion, he asked him if he were already dead.
45 And when he had understood it by the centurion, he gave the body to
46 And Joseph buying fine linen, and taking him down, wrapped him up
in the fine linen, and laid him in a sepulchre, which was hewed out of a rock, and he rolled a stone to the door of the sepulchre.
47 And Mary Magdalene, and Mary, the mother of Joseph, beheld
where he was laid.
1: about the year A.D. 33.; Matthew xxvii. 1.; Luke xxii. 66.; John xviii.
3: Matthew xxvii. 12.; Luke xxiii. 2.; John xviii. 33.
12: Matthew xxvii. 22.; Luke xxiii. 14.
13: John xviii. 40.
16: Matthew xxvii. 27.; John xix. 2.
21: Matthew xxvii. 32.; Luke xxiii. 26.
24: Matthew xxvii. 35.; Luke xxiii. 34.; John xix 23.
28: Isaias liii. 12.
29: John ii. 19.
34: Psalm xxi. 1.; Matthew xxvii. 46.
40: Matthew xxvii. 55.
41: Luke viii. 2.
42: Matthew xxvii. 57.; Luke xxiii. 50.; John xix. 38.