1 Kings xxxi.
Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Fled.
They make but a feeble resistance, as God was not with them. (Haydock) --- The first onset was made by the archers, and Saul's
three sons fell, while the king himself was dangerously wounded. (Calmet) --- The death of his sons would increase his anguish.
(Menochius) --- He seems not to have told them of the divine decree, as he might deem it irrevocable and unavoidable, so that
flight would have been of no service to them. (Haydock)
Ver. 2. Jonathan.
Ven. Bede, &c., doubt not of his salvation. (Salien)
Ver. 3. Overtook.
Hebrew, "attacked, found, or hit him." He was running away. (Haydock) --- Wounded. Some translate Hebrew, "terrified,"
as they believe the words of the Amalecite, "my whole life is in me." But that wretch deserves no credit; and Saul would probably
not take the desperate resolution of killing himself, till he saw there was no possibility of escaping. Septuagint, "the archers
find him, and they wounded him in the lower belly." Theodotion, "in the part near the liver."
Ver. 4. Bearer.
The Rabbins say he was Doeg. They were not yet come to a close engagement. --- Mock at me, as was then customary. See
Josue viii. 29., and Judges i. 7. He might recollect the treatment of Samson. (Calmet) --- Fear. "To spill the royal
blood's a direful thing." (Homer)
Ver. 5. With
him. Thus to avoid a little shame and temporal punishment, they rushed into those which are inconceivably geat and eternal.
(Haydock) --- The Jews in vain attempt to excuse Saul, as they deem suicide in such cases lawful, though in others they deprive
those of burial, who have been guilty of it. (Josephus, Antiquities vi. 14.) --- This author applauds the behaviour of Saul;
and indeed, his courage called forth the praises of David. But even the pagans have deemed those no better than cowards, who
have killed themselves to avoid misery.
Rebus in adversis facile est contemnere mortem:
Fortiter ille facit, qui miser esse potest. (Martial)
The civil laws deny suicides the rites of burial, as they are also guilty
of a crime against the state, which they deprive of their labours. They unjustly abandon what God has only committed to their
care. Saul seems to have been afraid of receiving any insult himself, rather than to have been desirous of preventing the
blasphemies of the infidels against God, as the Jews pretend. He gave no signs of repentance, and the spirit of God pronounces
his condemnation. So Saul died for his iniquities, because he transgressed; (Calmet; Hebrew and Septuagint, in his
iniquities, by which he prevaricated. Tirinus)...and moreover consulted also a witch, and trusted not in the Lord: therefore
he slew him, 1 Paralipomenon x. 13, 14. Saul prefigured those, who having yielded to temptations, persist and die in their
evil ways. (St. Gregory) (Worthington)
Ver. 6. His
men. 1 Paralipomenon x. 6., his house fell together. The hopes of his family were at an end, (Haydock) though Isboseth,
Abner, and some few survived him, (Menochius) who had fled, (Calmet) or had not been in the engagement. (Haydock)
Ver. 7. Beyond,
or about "the passage" or fords of the Jordan, as the Hebrew means. (Menochius) --- The Philistines did not pursue after them,
as God set bounds to their ambition. It might otherwise have proved very fatal to his people, who were now so much divided
and terrified. In the parallel passage, in Chronicles, it is only said, When the men....that dwelt in the plains (of
Jezrahel) saw this, they fled, 1 Paralipomenon x. 7. The Philistines seized the abandoned cities, particularly Bethsan,
(ver. 10.; Haydock) which had been retained by the Chanaanites in the days of the judges, and which David took back, Judges
i. 27., and 3 Kings iv. 12.
Ver. 9. Head,
as David had treated that of Goliath, chap. xvii. 54.
Ver. 10. Astaroth.
The like custom was observed by the Hebrew, (chap. xxi. 9,) and by the Greeks and Romans, (Calmet) to acknowledge that victory
was granted by God. The Philistines insulted Saul's body, and blasphemed the true God, as much as if they had taken the king
alive. He only avoided the mortification of hearing them while he was forced to attend to the furies below. --- Body,
with those of his three sons, ver. 12. (Haydock) --- Saul's head was hung up in the temple of Dagon, at Azotus; (1 Paralipomenon
x. 10,) his body was suspended on the wall or street of Bethsan; (2 Kings xxi. 12,) or in the most public place,
near the gate of the city.
Ver. 11. Jabes,
in gratitude for the deliverance which he had procured for them, chap. xi. 11. (Calmet) --- They are also deserving of praise
for shewing mercy to the dead, as well as for their bravery. (Worthington)
Ver. 12. Burnt
them, or the flesh, reserving the ashes and bones to be buried, as was customary among the Greeks (Homer, ps.)
Negliget iratus quod rem curtaveris; urnŠ
Ossa inodora dabit.
See Amos vi. 10. Jonathan insinuates, that they burnt over the bodies aromatic
Ver. 13. Wood.
1 Paralipomenon x. 12., under the oak. --- Days, at their own option. David fasted one day, (Calmet) as he did
for Abner. (Salien) --- There was no obligation of mourning for the kings, though it is probable that those near the royal
city, would shew this mark of attention to the deceased monarch. See Jeremias xxxiv. 5., and 2 Paralipomenon xxxv. 25. The
usual term of mourning was seven days, Ecclesiasticus xxii. 13. (Calmet) --- It is very difficult to ascertain the length
of Saul's reign. Sanctius and Tirinus allow him only 2 years; Petau 12; Calvisius 15; Salien 18; Bucholeer, and probably Josephus
20, though most copies of the latter have 38; St. Augustine, Serarius, Usher, &c., 40, which is the term mentioned [in]
Acts xiii. 20. But most chronologers suppose that the time of Samuel's administration is there also included. (Haydock) ---
Sulpitius thinks that Saul only "reigned a very short time," as "the ark was brought to Cariathiarim before he appeared on
the throne, and was removed by David, after it had been there twenty years."
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Israel is defeated by the Philistines: Saul and his sons are
1 And *the Philistines fought against Israel, and the men of Israel fled
from before the Philistines, and fell down slain in Mount Gelboe.
2 *And the Philistines fell upon Saul, and upon his sons, and they slew
Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Melchisua, the sons of Saul.
3 And the whole weight of the battle was turned upon Saul: and the archers
overtook him, and he was grievously wounded by the archers.
4 *Then Saul said to his armour-bearer: Draw thy sword, and kill me: lest
these uncircumcised come, and slay me, and mock at me. And his armour-bearer would not: for he was struck with exceeding great
fear. Then Saul took his sword, and fell upon it.
5 And when his armour-bearer saw this, to wit, that Saul was dead, he also
fell upon his sword and died with him.
6 So Saul died, and his three sons, and his armour-bearer, and all his
men that same day together.
7 And the men of Israel, that were beyond the valley, and beyond the Jordan,
seeing that the Israelites were fled, and that Saul was dead, and his sons, forsook their cities, and fled: and the Philistines
came, and dwelt there.
8 And on the morrow the Philistines came to strip the slain, and they found
Saul and his three sons lying in Mount Gelboe.
9 And they cut off Saul's head, and stripped him of his armour, and sent
into the land of the Philistines round about, to publish it in the temples of their idols, and among their people.
10 And they put his armour in the temple of Astaroth, but his body they
hung on the wall of Bethsan.
11 *Now when the inhabitants of Jabes Galaad had heard all that the Philistines
had done to Saul,
12 All the most valiant men arose, and walked all the night, and took the
body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, from the wall of Bethsan: and they came to Jabes Galaad, and burnt them there:
13 And they took their bones, and buried them in the wood of Jabes: and
fasted seven days.
1: Year of the World 2949.
2: 1 Paralipomenon x. 2. and 3.
4: 1 Paralipomenon x. 4.
11: 2 Kings ii. 4.