Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Eagle. It makes a noise like a trumpet. (Pliny, [Natural History?] x. 3.) --- Osee denounces judgments on
the house of Israel, which, though schismatical, was not entirely abandoned by the Lord. Salmanasar overturned the kingdom,
and may be compared to an eagle, as Nabuchodonosor is frequently, Ezechiel xvii. 3. But he is not here meant. (Calmet) ---
The temple shall be destroyed by him; (St. Jerome) yet not so soon. (Worthington) --- Septuagint, "In their bosom like earth
appears, like an eagle," &c. (Haydock)
Know thee. They resemble those to whom our Saviour will reply, Not every one that saith, Lord, Lord, shall enter
into the kingdom of heaven, Matthew vii. 22. (Calmet)
Him. Septuagint, "they have pursued the enemy." But the former sense is better. (Haydock) --- The Assyrians prevailed.
(St. Jerome) --- They carried Israel into captivity, before Juda, ver. 9. (Worthington)
They. Jeroboam and Jehu were assured by the prophets that they should reign, yet this was not a sanction of their right.
God condemned their ambition and wicked conduct. The successors of Zarharias had still less pretensions to the throne. God
permits such things. The people had not consulted him in these changes. (Calmet) --- Kings were their own choice, 1 Kings
xviii. Saul rose by their "error." (St. Jerome) --- Knew, or approved not, ver. 2., and Matthew xxv. 12. (Calmet)
--- Perish. This was the effect, though contrary to their intention. (Haydock)
Calf. The idol is broken in pieces, and carried away by the victorious enemy. Thus does the vanity of such gods appear.
Their captivity is therefore often foretold, Jeremias xliii. 12. --- Cleansed. The physician is disgusted with the
obstinacy of the sick. (Calmet) --- How long will Israel resist the Holy Ghost? (Acts vii. 51.) (Haydock)
Israel. This enhances the crime. Can a people so highly favoured adore the work of an artist? --- Webs, such
as appear on a fine day in autumn. St. Jerome's master suggested that this was the sense. Interpreters vary. (Calmet) ---
Septuagint and Theodotion, "is delusive." Symmachus, &c., "instable;" shebabim. (Haydock) --- Some erroneously
read v instead of i. "The Lord casts off the calves of heretics, ... and wonders that people should prefer heretical
filth before the cleanliness of the Church." (St. Jerome)
Whirlwind. They shall be punished for their folly, nor shall they reap any advantage from idols. --- In it,
or in Israel. The seed which I have sown yields no fruit. If any come up, the mildew destroys it. Yea, though any should come
to perfection, which is impossible, it should be given to strangers. My people perform no acts of religion; or at least they
render them useless, by adoring idols. (Calmet) --- He speaks in general terms, as few continued faithful. Yet even in the
worst of times, seven thousand were found, 3 Kings xix. 18. (Haydock)
Vessel. The nations around despised them, after they had applied to the Assyrians, who were looked upon as enemies
of all independent states. Israel was not yet in captivity: but this event may be spoken of as if already past.
Ver. 9. Wild ass. It is very jealous of liberty, (Job xi. 12.) and of its females, so that it prevents the young
males from becoming its rivals. (Pliny, [Natural History?] viii. 30.; Solin xxx.) --- If this were true, the species would
soon perish. (Haydock) --- The Israelites disdained subjection to strangers. They even rejected God, their king; for which
reason he abandons them to servitude, in a foreign land. They had run furiously after idols, and had given presents to such
Princes. Hebrew, "king of kings." This proud title was afterwards taken by the monarchs of Babylon and of Persia. Israel
shall cease to pay taxes, having nothing left. They shall cease to be a people. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "I will receive them,
and they shall cease a little to anoint a king and princes." (Haydock) --- They had none during the captivity, as they would
not consult God before in their appointment, ver. 4. He speaks ironically. I will conduct them beyond the Euphrates, where
they shall have nothing to pay for some time. (Calmet) --- This wretched condition was of long continuance; (Tournemine) though
short, if compared with their crimes. (Haydock)
Foreign. Shall I give them laws again to despise? Septuagint, "I shall write down their number." It will be an easy
task, they shall be so diminished. "His laws," &c., (Calmet) or, "I will describe to him a multitude, and his regulations:
The beloved altars have been deemed foreign. (St. Jerome's and Grabe's editions.) (Haydock)
Egypt, to escape the Assyrian, chap. ix. 3. (Calmet) --- They have imitated the Egyptian idols. (St. Jerome) --- Osee
had applied to their king for aid, 4 Kings xvii. 4.
Temples, or "palaces." (Calmet) --- Cities. The two tribes, witnessing the calamities of their brethren, will
not avoid a similar conduct, but trust in their fortifications. (Worthington) --- Fire of war destroys both kingdoms.
--- Thereof. Septuagint of St. Jerome adds, "and among the Assyrians they have eaten unclean things," which may be
taken from chap. ix. 3. (Haydock) --- It is not found in the present Hebrew or Greek copies. (Calmet)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The Israelites are threatened with destruction for their
impiety and idolatry.
1 Let there be a trumpet in thy throat, like an eagle upon the house
of the Lord: because they have transgressed my covenant, and have violated my law.
2 They shall call upon me: O my God, we, Israel, know thee.
3 Israel hath cast off the thing that is good, the enemy shall pursue
4 They have reigned, but not by me: they have been princes, and I knew
not: of their silver, and their gold they made idols to themselves, that they might perish.
5 Thy calf, O Samaria, is cast off, my wrath is kindled against them.
How long will they be incapable of being cleansed?
6 For itself also is the invention of Israel: a workman made it,
and it is no god: for the calf of Samaria shall be turned to spiders' webs.
7 For they shall sow wind, and reap a whirlwind: there is no standing
stalk in it, the bud shall yield no meal: and if it should yield, strangers shall eat it.
8 Israel is swallowed up: now is he become among the nations like an
9 For they are gone up to Assyria, a wild ass alone by himself: Ephraim
hath given gifts to his lovers.
10 But even though they shall have hired the nations, now will I gather
them together: and they shall rest a while from the burden of the king, and the princes.
11 Because Ephraim hath made many altars to sin: altars are become to
him unto sin.
12 I shall write to him my manifold laws, which have been accounted as
13 They shall offer victims, they shall sacrifice flesh, and shall eat
it, and the Lord will not receive them: now will he remember their iniquity, and will visit their sins: they shall return
14 And Israel hath forgotten his maker, and hath built temples: and Juda
hath built many fenced cities: and I will send a fire upon his cities, and it shall devour the houses thereof.