Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary, 1859 edition.

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Psalm 21

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Psalm xxi. (Deus Deus meus.)

Notes & Commentary:

Ver. 1. Protection, susceptione. Hebrew ayeleth, hathuchar, or "for a speedy interposition," or succour. See ver. 2, 20, and 25. --- St. Jerome, "the morning stag." (Haydock) --- Many of the titles are almost inexplicable, and this is one of the most puzzling; (Calmet) but is of no service for understanding the psalm, which certainly speaks of Jesus Christ, as the apostles have quoted several texts, and Theodorus of Mopsuesta was condemned for asserting that it was only accommodated to him. (Conc. v. col. 4.) (Berthier) --- Grotius comes too near this system, by explaining it of Christ only in a figurative sense. We ought to do quite the reverse, if we allow that some verses regard David, as a figure of the Messias; (Calmet) or rather, as the same person speaks throughout, we must understand the whole of Him. (Berthier, t. ii.) --- The Jews were formerly of the same opinion, (Lyranus) but seeing the use which was made of this psalm by Christians, they have explained it of David, or of the miseries of the nation. Septuagint seem to intimate that this psalm was sung at the morning service, (Calmet) or referred to the coming, or resurrection of our Saviour, (St. Augustine; Worthington; Psalm iii. 6.; Menochius) after the long night of infidelity. (Didymus) --- He is represented as the hart, or beautiful hind, whom the Jews hunted unto death, ver. 17. Some band of musicians might be styled, after "the morning hind," as another seems to be after "the mute dove;" (Psalm lv.) and the wine presses, or "band of Geth;" (Psalm viii., &c.) though we cannot pretend to give a reason for these titles. Many, who are unwilling to confess their ignorance, say that these terms allude to some musical instrument, or favourite song, &c. (Calmet) --- It would be as well to speak plainly that these things are hidden from us. (Haydock)

Ver. 2. O God. Our Saviour repeated these words as they are in Hebrew, though the vulgar tongue was Syriac, (Calmet) or Greek mixed with the Abamean. (Paulus) --- Eli (or Eloi, St. Mark) lamma sabacthani. So he pronounced what the Jews would now read, Eli....lama (or lamach.; Tirinus) hazabtani; (Calmet) and in our method, ali....lome zbocthoni. But it must be admitted (Haydock) that the true pronunciation is irretrievably lost. The Masorets vary from the ancient versions, (Masclef.; Capel; Houbigant; Mr. C. Butler, Hor. Bib. 4 edit. p. 69.) and from one another; so that after being at the immense labour of learning their rules, we shall be no more secure of attaining the truth. (Haydock) --- It were, therefore, greatly to be wished that the learned would agree about some characters to express uniformly the Hebrew in modern languages, as it would greatly facilitate the knowledge of the sacred writings. (Kennicott, Diss. i. p. 243.) --- We have only attempted to use such as might inform the reader what letters were in the original; and yet we are sorry to find that z, or the long a and e are often printed without the mark above; which shews the inconvenience of so many points, introduced by the Masorets. (Haydock) --- Look upon me, are words admitted by Christ, "because (says Eusebius) they are not in Hebrew." But this reason is not conclusive, as he might have left them out, though they were in the original. The Septuagint may have rendered one ali, in this sense, "to me," as they have not added my to the first mention of God: or, they may have anticipated from ver. 20 (Berthier) this explication. Christ speaks with reference to his sacred humanity, as his divinity suspended its beatific influence, that he might drink the bitter chalice. (Theodoret; St. Jerome) --- He also speaks the language of his afflicted members, who think they are abandoned. (St. Augustine) Calmet) --- Sins. That is, the sins of the world, which I have taken upon myself, cry out against me, and are the cause of all my sufferings. (Challoner) --- An ancient psalm of St. Germ. reads "lips," instead of sins. Hebrew, "roaring." (St. Jerome) (Calmet) --- "Prayer," Sixtine Edition. "Why art thou so far from helping me, and from the words of my roaring?" (Protestants) (Haydock) --- The Septuagint seem to have read shagathi, whereas the Hebrew places the g after the a, or they have substituted the cause for the effect; as sin was certainly the cause of Christ's affliction, and of his Father's not granting present relief. Indeed our Saviour did not ask for it, but only expressed the sentiments of suffering nature, which he corrected by the most perfect submission, to teach us how to behave. (Berthier) --- God is the God of all creatures, but more particularly of Christ, by personal union. (Worthington) --- The latter tenderly expostulates, (Haydock) that he is not comforted like other saints, (Matthew xxvii. 46.) since he had undertaken to die for the sins of the world, and reputed them as his own. (Worthington) --- Delicta nostra sua delicta fecit, ut justitiam suam nostram justitiam faceret. (St. Augustine) --- He speaks in the name of his members. (St. Thomas Aquinas, 3. p. q. 15. a 1.) --- Christ could commit no sin: (1 Peter ii. 21., and 2 Corinthians v. 21.) but as long as he had taken our iniquities upon himself, to expiate with his own blood, he could not be at ease till he had perfected the work. David was convinced that his own sins were punished by the rebellion of Absalom, as Nathan had declared, 2 Kings xii. 10. (Calmet)

Ver. 3. Folly. My cry proceeds not from impotent rage, Luke iv. 28. (Eusebius, Agel.) (Menochius) --- I know that thou wilt grant my request. (Calmet) --- I shall not cry in vain. (Theodoret) --- It is not for my own folly that I suffer. (Geneb.) --- "Many cry and are not heard, yet it is for their advantage, and not out of folly." (St. Augustine) --- Christ prayed on the cross, as he had done in the garden, to have the bitter chalice removed. But this was not blameable, as it was done with entire submission. (Worthington) --- The cry of the lips, or of human nature, which would be free from suffering, was not heard: (Haydock) because the cry of the heart, which desired that the justice of God should be satisfied, was much louder; and this petition was granted by Him who denied nothing to his Son, John xi. 41. (Calmet) --- This should be our model. Submission and perseverance will always be crowned. Hebrew has now d instead of r, in the word dumiya, "silence," which is also good; "there is no silence for me." In the night (Berthier) of death, (Haydock) God granted the petition. (Berthier) --- Aquila gives this idea, non tacebis, as St. Jerome observes: "thou wilt do what I desire." Hebrew may also mean: I have no rest, or I cry incessantly. (Calmet) --- The prayer of Christ for relief, was conditional. He absolutely desired God's will to be accomplished, and thus he was heard, ver. 25., and Hebrews v. 7. He was our pattern. (St. Augustine, ep. 120.) (Worthington)

Ver. 4. In the, &c. Hebrew, "the Holy one inhabitest the praises of Israel," or "Thou holy, sancte, inhabitant, the praise," (St. Jerome) or, as the plural intimates, the source and object of all "the praises of Israel," (Haydock) and of the Church. (Worthington) --- This may be connected with the preceding, or following verse. Thou art in the midst of us, so that thou canst not be ignorant of my situation, like the idols; or thou hast shewn great favours to our ancestors, ver. 5. Theodoret and St. Jerome seem to take these words to be addressed by the Father or by the prophet to Jesus Christ, who inhabited a body so free from sin. (Calmet)

Ver. 6. Confounded. He interests his Father, by calling to mind the ancient patriarchs, (Ecclesiasticus ii. 11.; Berthier) who obtained their requests. (Worthington)

Ver. 7. No man. Hebrew ish, "a great man," vir, (Mont.[Montanus?]) so far from being treated as a nobleman, I am not even respected as one of the meanest of men, (adam.) (Haydock) --- "Why not a man?" says St. Augustine, "because he is God. Why a worm? because a mortal, born of the flesh, without generation." The ancient naturalists supposed that worms were not generated; and though this be now deemed inaccurate, the Fathers applied this notion to confirm the doctrine of our Saviour's being born of a virgin, which had been clearly revealed. (Calmet) --- People. God afforded Christ no exterior (Haydock) or common consolation, while the wicked persecutors treated him as a worm. (Worthington) --- The rights of humanity are respected in the greatest criminals. But the enemies of our Lord added insult to torments, Isaias lii. 14. (Berthier) --- It would be difficult to apply this to David. For even in the depth of his misery, when reviled by Semei, and dishonoured by Absalom, he was attended by the priests, and by a powerful army. (Calmet)

Ver. 8. All. This often denotes only the greatest number. (St. Jerome) --- For surely the blessed Virgin, and some others, must be excepted. (Haydock) --- But almost all joined in persecuting Christ, (Worthington) while his disciples left him. (Calmet) --- These two verses are quoted by the three first evangelists. --- Spoken. Hebrew, "opened or distorted." (Berthier) --- "They shoot out the lip." (Protestants) --- These signs and expressions (Haydock) mark the greatest contempt, ver. 14., and Job xvi. 4., &c.

Ver. 9. He hoped. Hebrew, "roll, or he (Calmet) rolled himself on the Lord." (Protestants marginal note) --- But the text is conformable to ours. "He trusted on," &c. St. Matthew xxvii. 43., He trusted in God, let him deliver him now if he will have him. Ci, which is here rendered quoniam, "since," (Haydock may also mean "if," as it is in the Protestants marginal note. Thus both texts agree. Many passages are thus quoted, without adding, as it is written. (Berthier) --- God permitted that these blasphemers should use the very language of the prophet, that the completion of what he said might be more conspicuous. Chaldean, "I have sung praises to the Lord, and he has withdrawn me from danger." This explanation is not contemptible. (Calmet) --- But it is foreign to the context, and to all the other versions, as well as to the evangelists. (Haydock) --- The collating of this psalm with the history of Christ, must convince every sincere person that he who was thus ignominiously treated, was the object of God's complacency, and that the Christian religion is true. (Berthier)

Ver. 10. Womb. David might say this as a figure of Christ, in consequence of the many favours which he had received. (Theodoret) (Calmet) --- But none could use these expressions with propriety, but Jesus Christ, who had no man for his father, and who had the perfect use of reason, so that he could call God his God from the very first. All others are born children of wrath, except the blessed Virgin, whose privilege was still the fruit of redemption. (Berthier) --- She conceived and bore her son, remaining a pure virgin. (Eusebius; St. Athanasius; &c.) --- The synagogue rejected the Messias, but God received him, and made him head of the Church. (St. Augustine)

Ver. 11. Cast. This custom is noticed, (Genesis xxx. 3.) and frequently in Homer. Thou art my only Father, (Calmet) as I am born miraculously, and have been hitherto protected. I now suffer death, but thou wilt raise me to life again, Psalm xv. 9. (Worthington)

Ver. 12. Help. This Christ might say a little before he expired, foreseeing the distress of his Church, (Calmet) or he might use these words in his agony; (St. Jerome) as this agrees with the sequel. (Calmet) --- Almost all have abandoned me; and those who would, are not able to protect me. (Worthington)

Ver. 13. Calves. The insolent Jews and soldiers. --- Bulls. The more inveterate enemies, the priests and Pharisees. (St. Augustine, &c.) --- Hebrew, "strong bulls of Basan," (Protestants) a fertile country east of the Jordan, where the finest cattle were found, Amos iv. 1. (Calmet)

Ver. 14. As, is supplied by all the versions. (Berthier)

Ver. 15. Water, in the agony, or on the cross, fainting away, Josue vii. 5. --- Bones. In extreme pain, (Calmet) they have been dislocated. (Haydock) --- The bones signify the apostles, who were scattered through the world, to propagate the gospel. (St. Augustine) --- Heart. Which lives and dies first, is now like wax in the fire. (Worthington)

Ver. 16. Jaws. So that he said, I thirst. (Berthier) (Worthington) --- He would answer Pilate nothing in his own vindication. --- Death. The region of blessed spirits, (St. Jerome) or into the grave, where other bodies turn to dust. (Calmet)

Ver. 17. Dogs. The pagan soldiers, who were instigated by the Jews, (Matthew xv. 26.; Calmet) or the latter are here styled dogs, as they are by St. Paul, Philippians iii. 2. (St. Jerome) --- The evangelists could scarcely have explained the authors, and manner of our Saviour's death more particularly; so that we might entitle this "the Passion of Jesus Christ, according to David." (Worthington) --- Dug. The Jews have here, and God knows in how many other places, corrupted their text; reading "like a lion," though it have no sense, to avoid so clear a prophecy. (Worthington) --- They keep cari in the text, though it (Amama) or the margin had formerly the proper reading, caru. The Chaldean has both, "they have bitten like a lion," &c., in some editions only; which shews the antiquity of this variation, (Haydock) as the author, Joseph the blind, is supposed to have lived in the 4th century, though this is uncertain. (Calmet) --- All the ancient versions of the Septuagint, Syriac, &c., agree with us, as the Protestants do likewise. Even the Masora intimates that cari has not here the sense "of like a lion," as it has [in] Isaias xxxviii. 13; and, though it might be pointed so as to signify the same as caru, they have rejected that punctuation, and obstinately maintain their reading, in opposition to many manuscripts seen by Ben. Chaim, &c. (Berthier) --- Kennicott mentions another manuscript in the Bod. Lib. which has caru, with cari in the margin; and observes that Dr. Pocock, nevertheless, maintains the accuracy of the Hebrew edition in this, as well as in every other instance, asserting that car is perfodit, and cari the part.[participle?] Benoni, perfodientes, with the m omitted. "But as this omission is very irregular, and never proper but before a suffixed pronoun, or in construct.; and as the ancient versions express it....as a verb, there seems to be but little doubt that this word was originally cru or caru, with an a inserted to express the kametz." (Dis. 1. p. 500.) The proposed interpretation would be rejected by the Jews, while they would exult in their error being countenanced by us. (Calmet, Diss.) --- This reason is perhaps (Haydock) weak, as their conversion is not expected; if by means of it, the Hebrew Bible may be reconciled with the versions; "the council....hath besieged me, digging my hands." (Berthier) --- But this expedient is at least doubtful; (Haydock) suggested only by Protestants who maintained the integrity of the Hebrew text, which is now given up; and the Jews seem inexcusable, though the variation might originally arise (Calmet) from a mistake of transcribers. (Houbigant) --- They ought not to have rejected caru even from the margin, which they confess was once in the text, as it is still in very correct copies. Drusius informs us that a Jew threatened Bomberg, when he designed to adopt this correction, that if he did, he would prevent any of his brethren from purchasing a single copy. The pusillanimity of Christians, and the obstinacy of the Jews, keep therefore the text in its present state. (Amam, p. 461.) --- Ximenes had the courage to insert caru in his Polyglot. (Calmet) --- In the edition of St. Jerome, 1533, caru appears indeed in the margin; as he translated fixerunt, "they pierced," and cru in that of Mont. with o over cari, perhaps as a sign that the former was formerly in the margin, or should be translated, as it is by Pagnin, foderunt; though Mont. alters it for circumdederunt me, sicut leo manus meas, in obedience to the Jews. (Haydock) --- Thus we behold what dissensions the alteration of a single u or i may occasion; (Psalm xv. 10.) and yet these are letters which the Jews seem to have treated with little ceremony, (Haydock) changing in 100 instances, (Calmet) or omitting them, since the introduction of the vowel points; (Houbigant) and they are so easily mistaken, that the greatest attention is requisite to make the distinction. However, one jot or one tittle shall not pass of the law till all be fulfilled, Matthew v. 18. (Haydock) See Zacharias xii. 10.

Ver. 18. They. Hebrew, "I shall or may tell all my bones," (Calmet) they are so dislocated. (Haydock) --- Syriac, "my bones have howled," as in mourning. (Calmet) --- Upon me, out of contempt, (Eusebius) or to prevent my escape, (Origen) or deriding my naked condition. (Menochius) --- David experienced nothing of the kind. (St. Justin Martyr, Apology ii.)

Ver. 19. Vesture, or inner garment, which was all of a piece. (Calmet) --- The soldiers perceived that it would be rendered unserviceable by cutting. (Haydock) --- "Heretics attempt to divide the Church, but in vain." (St. Jerome) --- Lots. This was verified above 100 years afterwards, in the person of Jesus Christ. (Berthier) --- Let the Jews shew how it was accomplished in David. They assert themselves that nothing which had belonged to their kings was used by others. Their thrones, garments, &c., were all burnt. (Maimonides, &c.) --- Though this be doubtful we may employ this testimony against them. (Calmet) --- At Siceleg the effects of David were indeed plundered; but David was absent, and not under torments, like the person here described. Our goods must be divided, either before of after death. Let us be solicitous to obtain the second covering, which may never be taken from us, 2 Corinthians v. 4. (Berthier)

Ver. 20. Thy help. So some editions of the Septuagint read, but St. Jerome approves "my help," as it is in the Com. edition, conformably to the Hebrew, (Calmet) which seems more animated, though the sense is the same. (Berthier) --- The humanity here addresses the divine nature, to obtain a speedy resurrection. (St. Jerome) --- Hebrew, "O, my strength, haste thou to help me." What is man when left to himself! The whole of a spiritual life consists in keeping close to God, and being convinced of our own infirmity. (Berthier)

Ver. 21. Dog. All my enemies are united to persecute me, in my desolate condition. Unicam meam, "my desolate one," the soul, which is the only thing which ought to fix our attention; since if we lose it, all is lost. This only one, self, is often, however, the most dangerous enemy. (Berthier)

Ver. 22. Lowness. This sense appears to be preferable to the Hebrew, "hear me from," &c. (Calmet) --- Yet some who render the original literally have, "save me from the throat of the lion, and from the horns of the unicorns; thou hast heard me." This seems very striking, as Christ henceforth recounts the glorious effects of his sufferings. The Septuagint have explained hanithani as a noun, though it properly signifies, thou hast heard, or humbled. (Berthier) --- They may not have read the last n. (Calmet) --- Yet St. Jerome has, exaudisti me, "thou hast granted my request." (Haydock)

Ver. 23. Brethren. So Christ styles his disciples, principally (Calmet) after his resurrection, Matthew xxviii. 10., John xx. 17., and Hebrews ii 11. St. Paul quotes this passage, which may convince us that this psalm relates to our Saviour alone; and he informs us, that we are brethren of Christ, because we spring from Adam, (Berthier) and are adopted by God: whence the apostles assume the title of children of God, after baptism, Romans viii. 15., and 29., and Ephesians i. 5. (Calmet) --- We are willing to be coheirs with Christ, but dislike the condition, Romans viii. 17. --- Church. This he will never cease to do. After the resurrection, he communicated many instructions to his apostles, which all tend to honour God. (Haydock) --- St. Augustine here refutes the Donatists, who pretended that God's church was confined to a small part of Africa, and that he had abandoned the Catholic Church. He shews that this conduct would be injurious to God, and contrary to his solemn promises, as well as to this prediction, which speaks of all, and of a great Church, praising and fearing Him, ver. 24, 26, 28, and 29. The Church can, therefore, neither be destroyed nor hidden, though it may be persecuted. It will always be great, in comparison of any separate congregation which may pretend to the truth; and this appears not only with respect to the Donatists, but also to the Lutherans, &c. (Worthington)

Ver. 24. Fear. Thus the Gentile converts are designated, Acts x. 2, 35., and xiii. 16, 26.

Ver. 25. Israel. This may be something more general, as all the holy nation went under this name. --- Supplication. Hebrew also, "the lowliness of the afflicted." (Berthier) --- When I. Hebrew, Chaldean, and Syriac, "he," (Calmet) Jesus, of whom the prophet speaks; (Berthier) though, according to the Vulgate, He speaks himself, which seems more agreeable to the context. (Haydock)

Ver. 26. Great Church; the Catholic Church, dispersed throughout the world, in which many adore God in spirit and truth. (St. Jerome) --- Here Jesus Christ praises his Father by the mouth of his priests and faithful, in whom the spirit works. Hebrew, "From thee shall proceed my praise," in the great Church. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "congregation." (Haydock) --- The Vulgate may have the same meaning, as the desire to praise comes from God. The Church which Jesus founded immediately after his resurrection, to pay his vows, must last unto the end; otherwise this service would be interrupted. This can only be verified in the Catholic Church, as she alone can prove her uninterrupted existence. She alone is spread throughout the earth, united under the same pastors, and partaking of the same sacraments. If the Church failed after three or four centuries, the vows of Christ must have ceased. Yet he assures us, that he will pay them as long as his kingdom shall continue, ver. 29. --- Fear him. Houbigant would substitute "thee." This change of persons is however very proper and remarkable, as Christ no longer addresses his Father, but gives a description of the worship which should be exhibited in his Church. (Berthier) --- The eucharistic sacrifice is the vow here specified, which Christ offers by his priests daily. It is the only sacrifice of the new law, and the most perfect means of acknowledging God's supreme dominion, &c. (St. Augustine; St. Jerome, &c.) (Calmet)

Ver. 27. Poor. Hebrew hanavim, means also, "quiet and modest men," such as our Saviour calls poor in spirit, Matthew v. 3. These alone ought to partake of the holy sacraments. (Haydock) --- The psalmist may allude to the feasts prescribed by the law, (Deuteronomy xii. 7., and xxvi. 11.) and imitated in the love-feasts of the primitive Christians. The sacrifices of thanksgiving were symbols of that of the blessed Eucharist, of which the Fathers explain this text. (Theodoret; St. Augustine, &c.) (Calmet) --- Indeed, as it speaks of the times of the new law, this must be the meaning. (Haydock) --- It describes that part of the Christian worship, which consists in participating of those sacred mysteries which give life to the humble and worthy receiver, John vi. Protestants explain this eating, to mean "instruction." But that may be given any where; and the psalmist alludes to the public service, which is to be performed in the midst of the Church. Calmet would understand it of David, and of the sacrifices of the old law: which throws all into confusion. (Berthier) --- The apostles clearly refer the text to Jesus Christ, who promised to institute the blessed Eucharist, after he had fed the multitudes, (John vi.) and he fulfilled his promise at the last supper. (St. Augustine, ep. cxx. 27.) --- This holy doctor observes, that the rich, or the fat ones, have eaten and have adored, (ver. 30.) but yet are not filled, because they disdain to be humble. He speaks not of mere bread and wine, which cannot be lawfully adored; nor of Christ's body on the cross, or in heaven, which "is not eaten, but as it is in the forms of bread and wine on Christ's table, the altar." (Worthington) --- Those who approach unworthily sign their own condemnation, which they bear about in their bodies. (Haydock) --- Their. Hebrew, "your," though St. Jerome, Chaldean, Syriac, &c., agree with us. The sense is the same. My friends shall partake of the victims in abundance, after my restoration. "But the text is more naturally explained of the food....which we receive in the blessed Eucharist," and which imparts life eternal. The strong may partake, but they must first become mean in their own eyes. (Calmet) --- The faithful and humble only derive benefit from this great sacrament. Its effect is a glorious resurrection in eternal life. (Worthington) --- The sounder Protestants maintain that Christ is to be adored "in the symbols, before receiving." (Thorndike) See Answer to Slack, p. 14.

Ver. 28. Remember. Our Saviour says, Do this in remembrance of me. (Haydock) --- We must recollect what Christ has suffered and done for us, what was the condition of the world at his coming, and what the behaviour of his first disciples. These reflections will surely fill our breasts with love, admiration, and shame. The first Christians met together to break bread, they preached the word, and brought many to the faith. (Berthier) --- We cannot explain this of David, except in a very exaggerated sense. But all is clear if we understand it of Jesus Christ, whose faith many nations have embraced, assembling to celebrate his sacred mysteries, and the festivals of his birth, &c. (Calmet) --- The Gentiles shall enter into themselves, when they shall hear his doctrine, and embrace the true religion. (Worthington) --- In his. Hebrew, "in thy." The sense is the same. The German version follows the Vulgate, which Houbigant also approves. (Berthier)

Ver. 29. Nations. God placed David on the throne. He caused both Jews and Gentiles to submit to Jesus Christ, Matthew xxviii. 18., and Romans iii. 29. (Theodoret)

Ver. 30. Fat ones. Many ancient psalters read, "the rich," which is the true sense. --- Adored. This may be taken as a prediction. (Calmet) --- Hebrew is in the future, "they shall," &c. (Berthier) --- The rich of this world have no relish for the sacred nourishment. (Calmet) --- Those who understand, and comply with their duty, amid the riches with which they are not possessed, but only surrounded, find the greatest comfort in participating of it along with their poorest brethren, who may be equal, or superior to them, in the eyes of their common judge. The original dishnim, (Haydock) comes from a root, which signifies to reduce a victim to ashes, in testimony of approbation. It may here designate priests, as well as the rich, and princes. --- Earth. Dying, (Berthier) or to manifest their adoration in the Church. (Eusebius) --- All shall adore Jesus Christ, particularly those who receive his sacred body at the hour of death. Hebrew, "who go down to the dust." (Haydock)

Ver. 31. Shall. Hebrew, "and his soul he will not vivify," which gives no distinct meaning. Some join it with the preceding, All shall adore....yet he will not restore him to life. The living alone shall be able to sound forth God's praises, as it is often observed, Psalm vi. 6., and Isaias xxxviii. 18. (Calmet) --- Chaldean, "the Lord will not give life to the wicked; but the race of Abraham shall praise him." Others again explain it of Jesus Christ, "because he has not spared his life," he shall see a long-lived seed (Isaias liii. 10.) in the Church, which shall praise him for ever. (Haydock) --- V. sometimes signifies "because," and though it is not clear that it has this meaning here, the explication is very beautiful. None of the Greek versions admit the negation. They agree with the Vulgate; only Theodotion reads, "his soul;" making the prophet speak instead of the Messias. It is suspected that the Septuagint read i instead of v, and lu for la. The Masorets acknowledge 15 places in which this change would be proper. The learned observe many more. Thus 1 Paralipomenon xi. 20., in Hebrew we read that Abisai had "no (la) name among the three;" whereas it ought to be the reverse, (lu) ei nomen inter tres, "he was renowned," &c. (Berthier) --- St. Jerome agrees with the present Hebrew, "and his soul shall not live." Protestants, "and none can keep alive his own soul." Symmachus, "whose soul shall live, and seed shall serve him." (Haydock) --- "The Messias shall live for God, and his posterity shall serve him," (Berthier) as the faithful shall never cease to be influenced by his spirit, to testify their gratitude. (Haydock)

Ver. 32. To, or by the Lord, who opened the mouths of the prophets to foretell the propagation of the Christian Church. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "It shall be accounted to the Lord for a generation: They shall come and shall declare," &c. (Haydock) --- Heavens is added by the Vulgate to shew that the apostles, who are styled the heavens, (Psalm xviii.) shall proclaim these things. (Berthier) --- Septuagint, &c., omit this word, as well as many Latin copies. One generation shall deliver the true doctrine to another, as long as the world shall last. (Calmet) --- Which. Hebrew ci has this sense, (Berthier; Genesis iv. 25,) whom Cain slew, as all the versions agree, and St. Jerome renders quem fecit. (Haydock) --- Yet many translate, "that he hath done these things," (Berthier) delivering me from danger, and raising the Messias to life again, &c. (Calmet) --- Thus Jesus foretold, with his dying breath, the glory with should always be given to his Father, in his true Church. (Berthier) --- This is the generation which should be honoured with the title of children of God, and of Christ, (Haydock) and should partake of his sacraments. (Menochius)


Bible Text & Cross-references:

Christ's passion: and the conversion of the Gentiles.

1 Unto the end, for the morning protection, a psalm for David.

2 O *God, my God, look upon me: why hast thou forsaken me?

Far from my salvation are the words of my sins.

3 O my God, I shall cry by day, and thou wilt not hear: and by night, and it shall not be reputed as folly in me.

4 But thou dwellest in the holy place, the praise of Israel.

5 In thee have our fathers hoped; they have hoped, and thou hast delivered them.

6 They cried to thee, and they were saved: they trusted in thee, and were not confounded.

7 But I am a worm, and no man: the reproach of men, and the outcast of the people.

8 *All they that saw me have laughed me to scorn: they have spoken with the lips, and wagged the head.

9 *He hoped in the Lord, let him deliver him: let him save him, seeing he delighteth in him.

10 For thou art he that hast drawn me out of the womb: my hope from the breasts of my mother. 11 I was cast upon thee from the womb:

From my mother's womb thou art my God, 12 depart not from me.

For tribulation is very near: for there is none to help me.

13 Many calves have surrounded me: fat bulls have besieged me.

14 They have opened their mouths against me, as a lion ravening and roaring.

15 I am poured out like water; and all my bones are scattered. My heart is become like wax melting in the midst of my bowels.

16 My strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue hath cleaved to my jaws: and thou hast brought me down into the dust of death.

17 For many dogs have encompassed me; the council of the malignant hath besieged me.

They have dug my hands and feet: 18 They have numbered all my bones.

And they have looked and stared upon me. 19 *They parted my garments amongst them; and upon my vesture they cast lots.

20 But thou, O Lord, remove not thy help to a distance from me; look towards my defence.

21 Deliver, O God, my soul from the sword: my only one from the hand of the dog.

22 Save me from the lion's mouth; and my lowness from the horns of the unicorns.

23 *I will declare thy name to my brethren: in the midst of the church will I praise thee.

24 Ye that fear the Lord, praise him: all ye, the seed of Jacob, glorify him.

25 Let all the seed of Israel fear him: because he hath not slighted nor despised the supplication of the poor man.

Neither hath he turned away his face from me: and when I cried to him he heard me.

26 With thee is my praise in a great church: I will pay my vows in the sight of them that fear him.

27 The poor shall eat and shall be filled; and they shall praise the Lord that seek him: their hearts shall live for ever and ever.

28 All the ends of the earth shall remember, and shall be converted to the Lord.

And all the kindreds of the Gentiles shall adore in his sight.

29 For the kingdom is the Lord's; and he shall have dominion over the nations.

30 All the fat ones of the earth have eaten and have adored: all they that go down to the earth shall fall before him.

31 And to him my soul shall live: and my seed shall serve him.

32 There shall be declared to the Lord a generation to come: and the heavens shall shew forth his justice to a people that shall be born, which the Lord hath made.

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*

1: Matthew xxvii. 46.; Mark xv. 34.

8: Matthew xxvii. 39.; Mark xv. 29.

9: Matthew xxvii. 43.

19: Matthew xxvii. 35.; John xix. 23. and 24.

23: Hebrews ii. 12.