Psalm lxxviii. (Deus venerunt gentes.)
Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Asaph,
who might live during the captivity. (Calmet) --- If the ancient (Haydock) Asaph, or David, composed this psalm, it must be
considered as a prediction of the ruin caused by Nabuchodonosor, or by Epiphanes. (Berthier, T. v.) --- The author of 1 Machabees
(vii. 17.) accommodates it to the sufferings of those (Calmet) whom Alcimus destroyed; or rather the prophet had them also
in view as well as Christian martyrs. (Haydock) --- He cannot speak of the last ruin of Jerusalem, since it would have been
improper to pray for its restoration. (St. Augustine) --- Fruit. A mean village, (Menochius) as Isaias (i. 8.) had
threatened. Hebrew, "a heap of stones," (St. Jerome) in the field, Micheas i. 6. Such was the condition of Jerusalem under
Nabuchodonosor (Calmet) and Ephiphanes, 1 Machabees i. (Berthier) --- Catholics have been persecuted in every country, and
forced to use mean houses for divine worship. (Worthington)
Ver. 2. Saints.
The Assideans, who were the most esteemed for piety, 1 Machabees ii. 42. In the worst of times, there were always some pious
Israelites, and the generality of them were less wicked than their enemies, who exercised a horrid barbarity in refusing them
burial, after destroying vast numbers, 2 Paralipomenon xxxvi. 17. (Calmet) --- This was done at least under Epiphanes, 1 Machabees
vii. 16. (Haydock) --- Persecutors have hung the bodies of martyrs on poles to be the food of birds, (Worthington) as the
missionary priests were treated in England not long ago. Hebrew is here rather inaccurate, (Haydock) "to the wild beast of
the earth itself;" (Montanus) lechaitho arets, being put forth léith, earts, (Houbigant)
as Protestants themselves translate. (Haydock)
Ver. 4. Us.
The Idumeans, &c., are hence blamed by the prophets, Ezechiel xxv. 12., and Abdias 10. (Calmet) --- Christ and his disciples
have been treated with scorn, (Berthier) being styled Galileans, Papists, &c. (Worthington)
Ver. 5. Zeal,
or jealousy, as God has the greatest affection for his people, and resents their infidelity as a kind of adultery. (Calmet)
--- Sin is the source of misery. (Worthington)
Ver. 6. Name.
Their ignorance was of course culpable. (Berthier) --- This prayer is prophetical, (St. Augustine) or insinuates that those
infidels were still more deserving of punishment. (Berthier) --- By destroying Israel, the number of God's worshippers would
be lessened. (Calmet) --- Yet this consideration would not hinder God from chastising them; and it is not absolutely true
that pagans are always more guilty. Those who know the will of their master, and do it not, shall suffer many stripes. [Luke
xii. 47.] Having the true faith, they may, however, (Haydock) be sooner converted. (Worthington)
Ver. 7. They
have devoured. So Pagnin ventured to translate the Hebrew. But Montanus substitutes the singular, though it be evidently
incorrect, (Haydock) and contrary to all the ancient versions and the parallel passage, (Jeremias x. 25.) as well as to Manuscript
3, Lambeth 435, &c., (Kennicott) v being lost at the end of acol. (Houbigant) --- Place. Hebrew also,
"beauty," the ark or temple. (Calmet)
Ver. 8. Former
iniquities, which we and our fathers have committed. The Hebrews generally pray for the remission of their parent's faults,
Lamentations v. 7., Baruch iii. 5., and Daniel ix. 5. (Calmet) --- But here the penitents' own transgressions may be meant.
(Berthier) --- God is ready to pardon such. (Worthington)
Ver. 9. Help.
The necessity of grace, and the co-operation of free-will, are here plainly asserted. (St. Augustine)
Ver. 10. Their
God. Let him rescue his people. Cicero (pro Flacco) speaking of the Jewish nation, says, "How dear it was to the immortal
gods, appears from its being overcome, enslaved," &c. --- Shed. He speaks not of revenge; (Calmet) but in order
that chastisement may open the eyes of the infidels, that they may be converted. (Eusebius) --- Let none suspect that thou
disregardest thy people. The event will evince the contrary. (Worthington)
Ver. 11. Put.
Chaldean, "consigned." (Calmet) --- Protect the successors of the martyrs. (Worthington)
Ver. 12. Bosom.
Punish them severely (Calmet) in this world. (St. Jerome) --- Many of the surrounding nations were subdued by Nabuchodonosor,
five years after he had conquered the Jews. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] x. 10.) (Jeremias xlix. 7., &c.)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The Church in time of persecution prayeth for relief. It seems
to belong to the time of the Machabees.
1 A psalm for Asaph.
O God, the heathens are come into thy inheritance, they have defiled thy holy temple: they have made Jerusalem as a place
to keep fruit.
2 They have given the dead bodies of thy servants to be meat for the fowls of the air: the flesh of thy saints for the
beasts of the earth.
3 They have poured out their blood as water, round about Jerusalem, and there was none to bury them.
4 We are become a reproach to our neighbours; a scorn and derision to them that are round about us.
5 How long, O Lord, wilt thou be angry for ever: shall thy zeal be kindled like a fire?
6 *Pour out thy wrath upon the nations that have not known thee: and upon the kingdoms, that have not called upon thy name.
7 Because they have devoured Jacob; and have laid waste his place.
8 *Remember not our former iniquities: let thy mercies speedily prevent us, for we are become exceedingly poor.
9 Help us, O God, our Saviour: and for the glory of thy name, O Lord, deliver us: and forgive us our sins for thy name's
10 Lest they should say among the Gentiles: Where is their God? And let him be made known among the nations before our
By the revenging the blood of thy servants, which hath been shed: 11 let the sighing of the prisoners come in before
According to the greatness of thy arm, take possession of the children of them that have been put to death.
12 And render to our neighbours seven-fold in their bosom: the reproach wherewith they have reproached thee, O Lord.
13 But we thy people, and the sheep of thy pasture, will give thanks to thee for ever.
We will shew forth thy praise, unto generation and generation.
6: Jeremias x. 25.
8: Isaias lxiv. 9.