Psalm lxxx. (Exultate Deo.)
Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. For
the wine-presses, &c., torcularibus. It either signifies a musical instrument, or that this psalm was to be
sung at the feast of the tabernacles after the gathering in of the vintage, (Calmet) or on the feast of trumpets, on the 1st
of Tisri, Leviticus xxiii. 24. (Eusebius) (Pin.) (Calmet) See Psalm viii. --- From the grape some good wine is extracted,
and the rest is thrown away: so in this psalm we find the just rejoice, while the wicked complain, during the persecutions
of the Church. (St. Augustine) --- Some Latin copies add, "on the 5th day of the week;" and Genebrard supposes that these
additions are owing to the Jewish traditions, (Calmet) as they might sing this psalm on Thursday. (Haydock) --- We need not
attempt to ascribe this piece to any particular time, though some have thought that it regards the captives, the translation
of the ark, or the vocation of the Gentiles, &c. (Calmet) --- It is very beautiful. (Berthier)
Ver. 4. New
moon of Tisri, Leviticus xxiii. 24. --- Noted. Hebrew, "in the obscure, in the day of our solemnity." (Calmet)
--- Protestants, "in the time appointed, on our solemn feast-day." Cose may denote "obscure or appointed;" (St. Jerome)
"in the middle of the month;" (Haydock) which alludes to the feast of tabernacles, when the Jews dwelt under the shade of
tents, made of branches. This was esteemed "the most holy and greatest" of their festivals. (Josephus, [Antiquities?] viii.
2.) (Numbers xxix. 12., and Proverbs vii. 20.) (Calmet) --- It may also be explained of the new moon of Tisri, (Menochius)
when the people were admonished of the beginning of the civil year, or of the three great festivals to be then celebrated,
perhaps (Haydock) in memory of the world's creation, at that season. (Berthier) --- How carefully ought we not, therefore,
to celebrate the Christian holidays, which are instituted to excite our gratitude for greater benefits! (Haydock) --- The
days of the new moons (Numbers xxviii. 11.) were consecrated, to acknowledge God's constant providence; and that of
Tisri in particular, (Numbers xxix. 1.) to thank him for the preservation of Isaac, Genesis xxii. 18. (Worthington) --- But
the Lord's day reminds us not only of the world's creation, but also of its redemption, &c., Romans iv. 25. (Berthier)
Ver. 5. Jacob.
It is a duty which we owe to God, in obedience to his command. Hebrew may be, (Haydock) "a decree for the princes (gods)
of Jacob." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "a law of," &c.
Ver. 6. Joseph. Who represents all the family of Israel, as he took care of it. (Calmet) (Psalm
lxxix. 2.) (Worthington) --- Not. The Israelites heard the voice of God at Sinai, (St. Jerome, &c.; Calmet) and
for the last time, where forced to hear the insults of the Egyptians at their heels; (Haydock) whose language was barbarous
to them, (Psalm cxiii. 1.; Menochius) and not well understood by all, as they had very little society together. Joseph spoke
to his brethren by an interpreter. (Haydock) --- Some explain this of Joseph himself, when he first came into Egypt, (Chaldean.
Bossuet) or of the Israelites, at their arrival there. (Vatable) --- But this agrees not with the Vulgate or Hebrew, (Haydock)
the latter of which is very confused and incorrect, though it be adopted (Calmet) by St. Jerome: "I heard a tongue which I
knew not, I withdrew," &c., (Haydock) or, making a small alteration, "God hast established this festival
in Joseph, when He appeared in the land of Egypt to rescue his people: then said the Lord, I made him hear a
language which he knew not, that I was the protector of my people, I will remove," &c. (Calmet) --- The authors
of the Pin. disc. take this liberty, which would make the sense pretty clear. But the Hebrew means, "I heard," &c. Some
not being able to understand this, have substituted, "He heard," with the German version. (Berthier) --- The ancient Greek
interpreters seem to have read the same, as no variation is noticed. (Calmet) --- If, however, we must explain the Hebrew
of St. Jerome, we must suppose that, "I knew not, means I condemned, as it often does; and God certainly reprobated
the harsh language of the Egyptian task-masters, and came to deliver his people from oppression, Exodus ii. 25., and iii.
8., and v. 14. (Haydock)
Baskets. Hebrew, "brazen." (Montanus) --- "His hands shall pass from the pots." (Protestants) --- Dud, means
also, "basket." (Haydock) --- The Hebrews were thus forced to carry mortar, (Menochius) straw, &c. (Worthington)
Ver. 8. In
the secret place of tempest. Hebrew, of thunder. When thou soughtest to hide thyself from the tempest:
or, when I came down to Mount Sinai, hidden from the eyes in a storm of thunder; (Challoner; Exodus xix. 16.)
or when I afflicted Egypt, (Exodus ix. 23.) and Pharao's army, Psalm lxxvi. 19. --- Contradiction, at Mara, or rather
at Cades, where Moses betrayed some distrust, Exodus xxiv. 25., and Numbers xx. 12. (Calmet) --- After so many benefits, they
still contradicted God, and would not serve him. (Worthington)
Ver. 9. Testify.
Instruct, or call heaven to witness our covenant. (Calmet) --- Man has free will, and may choose whether he will obey or not.
Ver. 10. New
God. Who must of course be false. (Haydock) --- Hebrew, "strange," Exodus xx. 2., and Jeremias xxiii. 23. (Calmet) ---
An express law on this head was a great benefit, (Worthington) as most people had gone astray. (Haydock)
Ver. 11. Fill
it. I will grant all thy just requests, if thou be faithful. (Eusebius) (Calmet) (Worthington) --- God uses the title
of Jehovah, "the Eternal self-existent Being." (Berthier)
Ver. 13. Inventions.
Ancient psalters read, "wills." This is the greatest (Calmet) of God's judgments, Romans i. 24. (Menochius) --- He sometimes
permits a person to go on, that he may be disgusted with sin. Ut saturati vitiis vel sic agant pœnitentiam. (St.
Jerome) --- We ought all to dread this root of bitterness, (Hebrews xii. 15.) which may cause us to resist God's grace,
and to be abandoned by him, as the Israelites seemed to be, before their ruin came on. (Berthier)
Ver. 15. Soon.
Forsitan, "perhaps," (Haydock) does not here imply a doubt, (Menochius) but rather the ease and liberty (Worthington)
with which God could have rescued his people (Hebrew) "in a moment." (Calmet) (Berthier)
Ver. 16. Enemies.
The faithless Israelites, (Calmet) or infidel nations. (Bossuet, &c.) --- Ever. Impenitent sinners shall suffer
for ever. (Challoner) --- The Jews will scarcely be converted at last. (Menochius) --- For a long time God bore with
their infidelities, and heaped favours upon them. (Haydock)
Ver. 17. And.
Or "though." This increases their ingratitude. --- Filled. Hebrew, "I will fill thee;" which reading few admit. St.
Jerome agrees with us. (Berthier) --- Protestants, (16) "the haters of the Lord should have submitted (marginal note,
lied) to him; but their time should have endured for ever. (17) He should have fed them, (v rather signifies
"him;" Haydock) also with the finest of wheat, and with honey out of the rock, should I have satisfied thee." This sudden
change seems rather abrupt, though God may have spoken either in the first or third person, from ver. 6. (Haydock) --- Rock.
He fed them in the desert with manna, and the water seemed most delicious, as they were thirsty; unless he speaks of real
honey. (Menochius) --- The promised land was very fruitful; but all this prefigured the favours which God bestows upon his
servants, in the blessed Eucharist, 1 Corinthians x. 4. (Calmet) --- How many, like Judas, partake of them, and prove faithless!
Bible Text & Cross-references:
An invitation to a solemn praising of God.
1 Unto the end, for the wine-presses, a psalm for Asaph himself.
2 Rejoice to God our helper: sing aloud to the God of Jacob.
3 Take a psalm and bring hither the timbrel: the pleasant psaltery with the harp.
4 Blow up the trumpet on the new moon, on the noted day of your solemnity.
5 For it is a commandment in Israel, and a judgment to the God of Jacob.
6 *He ordained it for a testimony in Joseph, when he came out of the land of Egypt: he heard a tongue which he knew not.
7 He removed his back from the burdens: his hands had served in baskets.
8 Thou calledst upon me in affliction, and I delivered thee: I heard thee in the secret place of tempest: *I proved thee
at the waters of contradiction.
9 Hear, O my people, and I will testify to thee: O Israel, if thou wilt hearken to me, 10 there shall be *no new god in
thee: neither shalt thou adore a strange god.
11 For I am the Lord, thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt: open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it.
12 But my people heard not my voice: and Israel hearkened not to me.
13 *So I let them go according to the desires of their heart: they shall walk in their own inventions.
14 *If my people had heard me: if Israel had walked in my ways:
15 I should soon have humbled their enemies, and laid my hand on them that troubled them.
16 The enemies of the Lord have lied to him: and their time shall be for ever.
17 And he fed them with the fat of wheat, and filled them with the honey out of the rock.
6: Genesis xli. 29.
8: Exodus xvii. 5.
10: Exodus xx. 3.
13: Acts xiv. 15.
14: Baruch iii. 13.