Psalm civ. (Confitemini Domino.)
Notes & Commentary:
Alleluia. This word occurs at the end of the preceding psalm in Hebrew, and means, "Praise ye the Lord," though it
is also used as an exclamation of joy; for which reason it is left untranslated. See Apocalypse xx. (St. Augustine, ep. ad
Casulan.) (Calmet) --- It implies that we must praise God with all our power; and Catholic writers retain this (Worthington)
and similar words in the original. (Haydock) --- The first 15 verses of this psalm nearly agree with that which was composed
by David, when the ark was to be removed from the house of Obededon, 1 Paralipomenon xvi. 8, 22. (Haydock) --- But the last
part seems to have been added by him, or by another afterwards, with some small alterations. (Berthier) --- It was perhaps
adapted to the dedication of the second temple, with the two following psalms. (Calmet) --- Gentiles. Their conversion
is thus insinuated. (Calmet) --- The apostles preached to all. (Eusebius) --- How much more ought we not to celebrate the
mysteries of Christ? (Worthington)
Glory. 2 Corinthians x. 17. (Eusebius) --- Literally, "be praised," (Haydock) knowing to what an honor you have been
raised, (Deuteronomy xxx. 7., and Jeremias ix. 23.) and live accordingly.
Evermore. Be assiduous to obtain his favour, and present yourselves in his holy temple as often as you are able. (Calmet)
His servant. Or "servants." (Septuagint) Vulgate is ambiguous. Hebrew declared for servant here; but, his
chosen, is certainly plural, and refers to all the people, and [in] 1 Paralipomenon xvi. 13., we read, seed of Israel,
his servants. (Haydock)
Generations. Or from the call of Abraham. But this was to be understood if the Israelites continued faithful, (Deuteronomy
xxviii.) or the promise regards the spiritual children of Abraham, who are blessed for ever, (Berthier) and continue to the
end of the world. (Haydock)
Lot. Literally, "line," with which land was measured. (Calmet) -- The descendants of the patriarchs would never have
lost this inheritance if they had observed the law. The promise was therefore conditional; though it was absolute, in as much
as all were to be blessed in their seed: as they had begun to be, when Jerusalem was destroyed by Titus.
Very few. Hebrew, "as it were reduced to nothing," to avoid a tautology. (Berthier) --- But this version is not necessary.
(Haydock) --- Jacob at this time was not married, (Berthier) and his parents had no part of the land. This manifests the power
of God, and the faith of the patriarchs, (Calmet) who doubted not but that he would realize what he had promises. (Haydock)
People. This seems to be a fresh obstacle to their possession of Chanaan. (Calmet)
Prophets. The word anointed is thus explained, as the patriarchs were not kings over any but their own families,
though they were equal in riches to many kings. They foresaw future events, and offered sacrifice to God, as priests, in which
sense also they may be styled anointed. No visible unction, but the divine appointment, might be requisite. God protected
them in a wonderful manner, and selected them for his peculiar people. (Calmet) (Hebrews xi. 8.)
And. The psalmist continues to mention the favours of God, till the Israelites entered the promised land, which the
author of 1 Paralipomenon xvi., passes over. (Haydock) --- Bread. In time of famine, people are not strengthened with
their food. (Eusebius) (Ezechiel iv. 16., and v. 16.) --- God permitted, (Worthington) or caused the famine to rage.
He sent. Drawing good from the malice of Joseph's brethren, (Haydock) in which he had no hand. (Berthier) --- Who could
have thought that this event would have tended to Joseph's exaltation, and to the safety of his father's house?
Fetters. Hebrew cebel, (Haydock) "a chain, or the stocks." The meaning is not ascertained. (Calmet) --- Soul.
Luke ii. 35. He was in great distress, (Haydock) and in danger of perishing. (Theodoret)
His word. By which he foretold his own glory, or what should befall the king's two officers, which brought him into
notice, Genesis xxxvii. 9., and xl. 22. His word, may also refer to God's decree. (Calmet) --- Inflamed him.
He received the gift of prophecy, (Haydock) and being inflamed with the love of God, resisted the solicitations of Putiphar's
Instruct. Hebrew, "bind" by precepts or chains, (Berthier) as he had all power. --- Wisdom. Joseph was considered
as the oracle of Egypt, and the prime minister. (Calmet) --- We cannot doubt but he would strive to undeceive the people with
regard to many superstitions. (Theodoret) (St. Augustine)
Cham. Who resided there, and was worshipped under the name of Jupiter Ammon. (Bochart, Phaleg. iv. 1.) (Calmet) ---
Misraim was his son, and peopled the land, Genesis x. 13. (Worthington)
Exceedingly. In 215 years, 600,000 warriors sprung from seventy people, (Calmet) or from seventy-five, as Septuagint
and St. Stephen read, comprising eight wives, Jacob, and sixty-six of his descendants. Seventy might naturally produce two
million and a half in such a space of time. But the Hebrews had been cruelly oppressed. God's blessing enabled them to increase
as they did. (Berthier)
He turned their heart, &c. Not that God (who is never the author of sin) moved the Egyptians to hate and persecute
his people; but that the Egyptians took occasion of hating and envying them, from the sight of the benefits which God bestowed
upon them. (Challoner) (St. Augustine) --- He permitted the malice of the Egyptians, (Theodoret) and employed them to chastise
his people, who had adored idols. (Eusebius) (Acts vii. 43.) Felix, Protestants, &c., translate the Hebrew, "their heart
was turned." (Berthier) --- The perversity of the Egyptians came from themselves, though it was turned to a good account.
He gave. Hebrew, "they placed in them the words of their signs." (Calmet) (Houbigant) --- But the Chaldean and St.
Jerome are conformable to the Septuagint. (Berthier)
Grieved not his words. That is, he was not wanting to fulfil his words: or he did not grieve Moses and Aaron, the carriers
of his words: or he did not grieve his words, that is, his sons, the children of Israel, who enjoyed light whilst
the Egyptians were oppressed with darkness. (Challoner) --- He performed what he had threatened without reluctance. (Worthington)
--- We may also translate, "he added no threat (Haydock) before this ninth plague was inflicted." Hebrew, "and they did not
irritate (or transgress) his word." The envoys of God were obedient to him. The copies of the Septuagint are not uniform;
(Calmet) some omit the negation, which would give a very good sense; though it must be allowed to be inaccurate, unless the
Hebrew be read with an interrogation, "did they not resist his word?" alluding to the Egyptians. (Berthier) --- Almost all
the ancients have the plural exacerbaverunt, except St. Jerome, in his commentary. (Calmet)
Blood. In reality, so that the fishes were killed. (St. Athanasius)
Land. Including the rivers, Exodus vii. 1., and viii. 3. --- Kings, or noblemen. (Berthier)
Flies. This was revealed to David, or known by tradition, as it is not recorded by Moses. (Worthington) --- Some copies
of the Septuagint have, "the dog-fly," cinifes (Exodus viii. 16.) gnats, (Haydock) which are very common and tormenting
in Egypt. The Jews understand lice. (Joseph and the Chaldean) (Calmet)
Rain. Which fall in Egypt, though less frequently. (Calmet) (Wisdom xvi. 17.)
Bruchus. An insect of the locust kind, (Challoner) or a worm which spoils corn, &c. (Worthington)
Labour. This explains the first part of the verse, Genesis xlix. 3., and Psalm lxxvii. 51. (Haydock) --- The fifth
and sixth plagues are not specified. (Worthington)
Gold. Which the Egyptians gave to get quit of them, (Exodus xi. 1.) and that with joy, (ver. 38.) though they might
at first only intend to lend. (St. Augustine) (Berthier) --- Feeble. This refutes the notion which the enemies of the
Jews had propagated, saying that they were banished on account of the leprosy. They felt none of the inconveniences which
fell on the Egyptians, and God removed every obstacle which might retard their flight. (Calmet) --- According to the course
of nature, out of two million and a half, 150 people die daily. (Berthier)
Asked. Chaldean and ancient psalters add, "for meat." Hebrew, "he (Moses or all the people) asked, and the quail came,"
at Sin, Exodus xvi. 13.
Rivers. The waters from the rock were so abundant. (Calmet) (Exodus xvii. 6.) (Berthier)
People. Whose crimes have deserved death, Numbers xxxiii. 51., and Deuteronomy vii. 5. (Calmet)
His justifications. That is, his commandments: which here, and in many other places of the Scripture, are called justifications,
because the keeping of them make men just. The Protestants render it by the word statutes, in favour of their doctrine,
which does not allow good works to justify. (Challoner) --- The design of God in granting Chanaan to the Israelites, was to
encourage them to preserve the true religion. (Calmet)