Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. In
the beginning was the word: or rather, the word was in the beginning. The eternal word, the increated[uncreated?]
wisdom, the second Person of the blessed Trinity, the only begotten Son of the Father, as he is here
called (ver. 14.) of the same nature and substance, and the same God, with the Father and Holy Ghost.
This word was always; so that it was never true to say, he was not, as the Arians blasphemed. This word was
in the beginning. Some, by the beginning, expound the Father himself, in whom he was always. Others give this
plain and obvious sense, that the word, or the Son of God, was, when all other things began to have a being; he never began,
but was from all eternity. --- And the word was with God; i.e. was with the Father; and as it is said, (ver. 18) in
the bosom of the Father; which implies, that he is indeed a distinct person, but the same in nature and substance
with the Father and the Holy Ghost. This is repeated again in the second verse, as repetitions are very frequent in St. John.
--- And the word was God. This without question is the construction; where, according to the letter we read, and
God was the word. (Witham) --- The Greek for the word is Logos, which signifies not only the
exterior word, but also the interior word, or thought; and in this latter sense it is taken here. (Bible de Vence) --- Philo
Judæus, in the apostolic age, uses the word Logos, p. 823, to personify the wisdom and the power of God. Logos estin eikon Theou di ou sumpas o Kosmos edemiourgeito. By a
similar metonymy, Jesus Christ is called the way, the truth, the life, the resurrection. --- And the word was God.
Here the eternity and the divinity of the second Person are incontrovertibly established; or, we must say that language has
no longer a fixed meaning, and that it is impossible to establish any point whatever from the words of Scripture. (Haydock)
Ver. 2. The
same was in the beginning with God. In the text is only, "this was in the beginning;" but the sense and construction certainly
is, this word was in the beginning. (Witham)
Ver. 3. All
things were made by him, and without him was made nothing that was made. These words teach us, that all created
being, visible, or invisible on earth, every thing that ever was made, or began to be, were made,
produced, and created by this eternal word, or by the Son of God. The same is truly said of the Holy Ghost; all creatures
being equally produced, created, and preserved by the three divine Persons as, by their proper, principal,
and efficient cause, in the same manner, and by the same action: not by the Son, in any manner inferior to the Father;
nor as if the Son produced things only ministerially, and acted only as the minister, and instrument
of the Father, as the Arians pretended. In this sublime mystery of one God and three distinct Persons, if we consider the
eternal processions, and personal proprieties, the Father is the first Person, but not by any priority
of time, or of dignity; all the three divine Persons being eternal, or co-eternal, equal in all perfections,
being one in nature, in substance, in power, in majesty: in a word, one and the same God. The Father in no other sense
is called the first Person, but because he proceeds from none, or from no other person: and the eternal Son is the
second Person begotten, and proceeding from him, the Father, from all eternity, proceeds now, and shall proceed from him for
all eternity; as we believe that the third divine Person, the Holy Ghost, always proceeded without any
beginning, doth now proceed, and shall proceed for ever, both from the Father and the Son. But when we consider
and speak of any creatures, of any thing that was made, or had a beginning, all things were equally created in time,
and are equally preserved, no less by the Son, and by the Holy Ghost, than by the Father. For
this reason St. John tells us again in this chapter, (ver. 10.) that the world was made by the word. And our Saviour
himself (John v. 19.) tells us, that whatsoever the Father doth, these things also in like manner, or in the same manner,
the Son doth. Again the apostle, (Hebrews i. ver. 2.) speaking of the Son, says, the world was made by him:
and in the same chapter, (ver. 10.) he applies to the Son these words, (Psalm ci. 26.) And thou, O Lord, in the
beginning didst found the earth: and the heavens are the works of thy hands, &c. To omit other places, St.
Paul again, writing to the Colossians, (Chap. i. ver. 16, 17.) and speaking of God's beloved Son, as may be seen in
that chapter, says, that in him all things were created, visible and invisible---all things were created in him, and by
him, or, as it is in the Greek, unto him, and for him; to shew that the Son was not only the efficient cause,
the Maker and Creator of all things, but also the last end of all. Which is also confirmed by the following
words: And he is before all, and all things subsist in him, or consist in him; as in the Rheims and Protestant
translations. I have, therefore, in this third verse, translated, all things were made by him, with all English translations
and paraphrases, whether made by Catholics or Protestants; and not all things were made through him, lest through
should seem to carry with it a different and a diminishing signification; or as if, in the creation of the world, the
eternal word, or the Son of God, produced things only ministerially, and, in a manner, inferior to the
Father, as the Arians and Eunomians pretended; against whom, on this very account, wrote St. Basil, lib. de spiritu Sto. St.
Chrysostom, and St. Cyril, on this very verse; where they expressly undertake to shew that the Greek text in this verse no
ways favours these heretics. The Arians, and now the Socinians, who deny the Son to be true God, or that
the word God applies as properly to him as to the Father, but would have him called God, that is, a nominal god,
in an inferior and improper sense; as when Moses called the god of Pharao; (Exodus vii. 1.) or as men in authority
are called gods; (Psalm lxxxi. 6.) pretend, after Origen, to find another difference in the Greek text; as if, when
mention is made of the Father, he is styled the God; but that the Son is only called God, or a God. This
objection St. Chrysostom, St. Cyril, and others, have shewn to be groundless: that pretended significant Greek article
being several times omitted, when the word God is applied to God the Father; and being found in other places, when
the Son of God is called God. See this objection fully and clearly answered by the author of a short book, published in the
year 1729, against Dr. Clark and Mr. Whiston, p. 64, and seq. (Witham) --- Were made, &c. Mauduit here represents
the word: ---"1. As a cause, or principle, acting extraneously from himself upon the void space, in order to give a being
to all creatures:" whereas there was no void space before the creation. Ante omnia Deus erat solus, ipse sibi et mundus et
locus, et omnia. (Tertullian, lib. cont. Prax. chap. v.) And St. Augustine in Psalm cxxii. says: antequam faceret Deus Sanctos,
ubi habitabat? In se habitabat, apud se habitabat. --- The creation of all things, visible and invisible, was the work of
the whole blessed Trinity; but the Scriptures generally attribute it to the word; because wisdom, reason, and intelligence,
which are the attributes of the Son, are displayed most in it. (Calmet) --- What wonderful tergiversations the Arians used
to avoid the evidence of this text, we see in St. Augustine, lib. iii. de doct. Christ. chap. 2; even such as modern dissenters
do, to avoid the evidence of This is my Body, concerning the blessed Eucharist. (Bristow)
Ver. 4. In
him: i.e. in this word, or Son of God, was life; because he gives life to every living creature. Or, as
Maldonatus expounds it, because he is the author of grace, which is the spiritual life of our souls. --- And the life was
the light of men, whether we expound it of a rational soul and understanding, which he gives to all men; or of the spiritual
life, and those lights of graces, which he gives to Christians. (Witham)
Ver. 5. And
the light shineth, or did shine, in darkness. Many understand this, that the light of reason, which God gave to
every one, might have brought them to the knowledge of God by the visible effects of his Providence in this world: but the
darkness did not comprehend it, because men, blinded by their passions, would not attend to the light of reason. Or we
may again understand it, with Maldonatus, of the lights of grace, against which obstinate sinners wilfully shut their eyes.
Ver. 7. That
all men might believe through him; i.e. by John the Baptist's preaching, who was God's instrument to induce them to believe
in Jesus the Christ, or the Messias, their only Redeemer. (Witham)
Ver. 8-9. He;
that is John the Baptist, was not the true light: but the word was the true light. In the translation, it is necessary
to express that the word was the true light, lest any one should think that John the Baptist was this light. (Witham)
Ver. 10. He
was in the world, &c. Many of the ancient interpreters understand this verse of Christ as God, who was in the world
from its first creation, producing and governing all things: but the blind sinful world did not know and worship him. Others
apply these words to the Son of God made man; whom even God's own chosen people, the Jews, at his coming, refused to receive
and believe in him. (Witham)
Ver. 11. His
own. This regards principally the Jews. Jesus came to them as into his own family, but they did not receive him. It may
likewise be extended to the Gentiles, who had groaned so long a time in darkness, and only seemed to wait for the rising sun
of justice to run to its light. They likewise did not receive him. These words, though apparently general, must be understood
with restriction; as there were some, though comparatively few, of both Jews and Gentiles, who embraced the faith. (Calmet)
Ver. 12. He
gave to them power to be made the adoptive sons of God, and heirs of the kingdom of heaven. They are made the children
of God by believing and by a new spiritual birth in the sacrament of baptism, not of blood; (literally, not of bloods)
not by the will, and desires of the flesh, not by the will of men, nor by human generation, as children
are first born of their natural parents, but of God, by faith and divine grace. (Witham)
Ver. 14. And
the word was made flesh. This word, or Son of God, who was in the beginning, from all eternity, at
the time appointed by the divine decrees, was made flesh, i.e. became man, by a true and physical union of his divine
person, (from which the divine nature was inseparable) to our human nature, to a human soul, and a human body,
in the womb, and of the substance, of his virgin Mother. From the moment of Christ's incarnation, as all Christians are taught
to believe, he that was God from eternity, became also true man. In Jesus Christ, our blessed Redeemer, we believe one
divine Person with two natures, and two wills; the one divine, the other human: by which substantial
union, one and the same Person became truly both God and man; not two persons, or two sons, as Nestorius, the heretic,
pretended. By this union, and a mutual communication of the proprieties of each nature, it is true to say, that the Son of
God, remaining unchangeably God, was made man; and therefore that God was truly conceived and born of the virgin Mary, who,
on this account, was truly the Mother of God: that God was born, suffered, and died on the cross, to redeem and save us. The
word, in this manner made man, dwelt in us, or among us, by this substantial union with our human nature, not
morally only, nor after such a manner, as God is said to dwell in a temple; nor as he is in his faithful servants,
by a spiritual union, and communication of his divine graces; but by such a real union, that the same
person is truly both God and man. --- And we saw his glory, manifested to the world by many signs and miracles; we
in particular, who were present at his transfiguration. (Matthew xvii.) --- Full of grace and truth. These words, in
the construction, are to be joined in this manner: the word dwelt in us, full of grace and truth; and we have seen
his glory, &c. This fulness of grace in Christ Jesus, infinitely surpassed the limited fulness, which the Scripture
attributes to St. Stephen, (Acts vi. 8.) or to the blessed virgin Mother: (Luke i. 28.) they are said to be full of grace,
only because of an extraordinary communication and greater share of graces than was given to other saints. But Christ, even
as man, had a greater abundance of divine graces: and being truly God as well as man, his grace and sanctity
were infinite, as was his person. --- As of the only begotten of the Father. If we consider Christ in himself, and
not only as he was made known to men by outward signs and miracles, St. Chrysostom and others take notice that the word as,
no ways diminisheth the signification; and that the sense is, we have seen the glory of him, who is truly from all eternity
the only begotten Son of the Father: who, as the Scriptures assure us, is his true, his proper Son, his
only begotten, who was sent into the world, who descended from heaven, and came from the Father,
and leaving the world, returned where he was before, returned to his Father. We shall meet with many such Scripture
texts, to shew him to be the eternal Son of his eternal Father; or to shew that the Father was always his Father, and the
Son always his Son: as it was the constant doctrine of the Catholic Church, and as such declared in the general council of
Nice, that this, his only Son, was born or begotten of the Father before all ages ... God from God, the true God from the
true God. It was by denying this truth, "that the Son was the Son always, and the Father always, and from all eternity,
the Father;" that the blaspheming Arius began his heresy in his letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia, against his bishop of Alexandria,
St. Alexander. See the letter copied by St. Epiphanius, Hær. 69. p. 731. Ed. Petavii. (Witham) --- Dwelt among us.
In a material body, like ours, clothed with our nature. He is become mortal, and like us in every thing, but sin and concupiscence.
The Greek literally translated, is, he has pitched his tent amongst us, like a stranger and passenger, who makes no
long stay in one place. The body in Scripture, is sometimes called a tent or tabernacle, in which the soul dwells, as 2 Peter
i. 14. (Calmet)
Ver. 15. Is
preferred before me. Literally, is made before me. The sense, says St. Chrysostom is, that he is greater in
dignity, deserves greater honour, &c. though born after me, he was from eternity. (Witham)
Ver. 16. And
of his fulness we all have received; not only Jews, but also all nations. --- And grace for grace. It may perhaps
be translated grace upon grace, as Mr. Blackwall observes, and brings a parallel example in Greek out of Theognis,
p. 164. It implies abundance of graces, and greater graces under the new law of Christ than in the time of the law of Moses;
which exposition is confirmed by the following verse. (Witham) --- Before the coming of the Messias all men had the light
of reason. The Greeks had their philosophy, the Jews the law and prophets. All this was a grace and favour bestowed by God,
the author of all good. But since the word was made flesh, God has made a new distribution of graces. He has
given the light of faith, and caused the gospel of salvation to be announced to all men; he has invited all nations
to the faith and knowledge of the truth. Thus he has given us one grace for another; but the second is infinitely greater,
more excellent, and more abundant than the first. The following verse seems to insinuate, that the evangelist means the law
by the first grace, and the gospel by the second. Compare likewise Romans i. 17. The Jews were conducted by faith to faith;
by faith in God and the law of Moses, to the faith of the gospel, announced by Christ. (Calmet)
Ver. 18. No
man hath seen God. No mortal in this life by a perfect union and enjoyment of him. Nor can any creature perfectly comprehend
his infinite greatness: none but his only begotten divine Son, who is in the bosom of his Father, not only by an union
of grace, but by an union and unity of substance and nature; of which Christ said, (John xiv. 11.) I am in the Father,
and the Father in me. (Witham)
Ver. 19. The
Jews sent, &c. These men, who were priests and Levites, seem to have been sent and deputed by the sanhedrim,
or great council at Jerusalem, to ask of John the Baptist, who was then in great esteem and veneration, whether he was not
their Messias; who, as they knew by the predictions of the prophets, was to come about that time. John declared to them he
was not. To their next question, if he was not Elias? He answered: he was not: because in person he was not;
though our Saviour (Matthew xi. 14.) says he was Elias: to wit, in spirit and office only. Their third question was, if he
was a prophet? He answered, no. Yet Christ (Matthew xi.) tells us, he was a prophet, and more than a prophet.
In the ordinary acceptation only, they were called prophets who foretold things to come: John then, with truth, as well as
humility, could say he was not a prophet; not being sent to foretell the coming of the Messias, but to point him out as already
come, and present with the Jews. (Witham)
Ver. 23. The
voice of one crying in the wilderness. See Matthew iii. 3.; Mark i. 3.; Luke iii. 4.; and Isaias xl. 3. by all which John
was his immediate precursor. (Witham)
Ver. 26. Hath
stood. St. John the Baptist, by these words, which he spoke to the priests and Levites, sent to him by the Pharisees,
did not mean to tell them, that Jesus was either at the present time standing amongst them, or that he had ever been in the
presence of the self same people; but they may be understood two different ways, either with regard to his divinity; and in
that sense, Jesus was always by his divine presence amongst them; or in regard to his humanity; either that he lived in the
same country, and among their countrymen, or, that he stood actually amongst them, because Jesus was accustomed yearly to
go up to Jerusalem on the festival of the Pasch. (Denis the Carthusian)
Ver. 29. Behold
the Lamb of God. John the Baptist let the Jews know who Jesus was, by divers testimonies. 1st, By telling them he was
the Lamb of God who taketh away the sin, or sins of the world, who was come to be their Redeemer, and to free mankind from
the slavery of sin; 2ndly, that he was greater than he, and before him, though born after him; 3rdly,
that God had revealed to him that Jesus was to baptize in the Holy Ghost; 4thly, that he saw the Spirit descending
upon him from heaven, and remaining upon him; 5thly, that he was the Son of God, ver. 34. (Witham) --- Who
taketh away. It was only a being like Christ, in whose person the divine and human natures were united, that could effectually
take away the sins of the world. As man, he was enabled to suffer; and as God, his sufferings obtained a value equal to the
infinite atonement required. (Haydock)
Ver. 39. Staid
with him that day. Yet they did not continually remain with him, as his disciples, till he called them, as they were fishing.
See the annotations, Matthew iv. 18. (Witham)
Ver. 42. Thou
art Simon, the son of Jona, or of John. Jesus, who knew all things, knew his name, and at the first meeting told him he
should hereafter be called Cephas, or Petrus, a rock, designing to make him the chief or head of his whole Church.
See Matthew xvi. 18. (Witham) --- Cephas is a Syriac word, its import is the same as rock or stone. And St. Paul commonly
calleth him by this name: whereas others, both Greeks and Latins, call him by the Greek appellation, Peter; which signifies
exactly the same thing. Hence St. Cyril saith, that our Saviour, by foretelling that his name should be now no more Simon,
but Peter, did by the word itself aptly signify, that on him, as on a rock most firm, he would build his Church. (Lib. ii.
chap. 12. in Joan.)
Ver. 46. Can
any thing of good come from Nazareth? Nathanael did not think it consistent with the predictions of the prophets, that
the Messias, who was to be the Son of David, and to be born at Bethlehem, should be of the town of Nazareth; which he did
not imagine could be the place of Jesus's birth. But when he came to Jesus, and found that he knew the truth of things done
in private, and in his absence, he professed his belief in Jesus in these words: Rabbi, thou art the Son of God, thou art
the king of Israel. We may here take notice, with Dr. Pearson, on the second article of the Creed, that the Jews, before
the coming of Christ, were convinced that he was to be the Son of God; (though they have denied it since that time) for they
interpreted, as foretold of their Messias, these words: (Psalm ii. 7.) The Lord said to me, thou art my Son, this day have
I begotten thee: and this is what Nathanael here confessed. The same is confirmed by the famous confession of St. Peter,
(Matthew xvi. 16.) Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God; by the words of Martha, (John xi. 27.) I have
believed that thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God, who art come into the world: In fine, by the question which
the Jewish priest put to our Saviour, (Matthew xxvi. 63.) I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou
be the Christ the Son of God. See also John vi. 70. and John xx. 31. (Witham)
Ver. 50. Greater
things than these. Greater miracles and proofs that I am the Messias, and the true Son of God. (Witham)
Ver. 51. You
shall see the heaven open, &c. It is not certain when this was to be fulfilled: St. Chrysostom thinks at Christ's
ascension; others refer it to the day of judgment. (Witham)
 Ver. 1. Et Deus erat Verbum, kai theos en o logos. Logos
was a word very proper to give all that should believe a right notion of the Messias, and of the true Son of God. Logos,
according to St. Jerome, (Ep. ad Paulinum. tom. iv. part 2, p. 570. Ed. Ben.) signifies divers things; as, the wisdom
of the Father, his internal word or conception; and, as it were, the express image of the invisible God.
Here it is not taken for any absolute divine attribute or perfection; but for the divine Son, or the
second Person, as really distinct from the other two divine Persons. And that by logos, was to be
understood him that was truly God, the Maker and Creator of all things; the Jews might easily understand, by what they read
adn frequently heard in the Chaldaic Paraphrase, or Targum of Jonathan, which was read to them in the time of our Saviour,
Christ, and at the time when St. John wrote his gospel. In this Paraphrase they were accustomed to hear that the Hebrew word
Memreth, to which corresponded in Greek, logos, was put for him that was God: as Isaias xlv. 12, I
made the earth; in this Targum, I, by my word, made the earth: Isaias xlviii. 13, My hand also hath founded
the earth; in this Paraphrase, in my word I founded the earth: Genesis iii. 8, They heard the voice of the Lord
God; in the Paraphrase, the voice of the word of God. See Walton, prolog. xii, num. 18, p. 86.; Maldonatus on this
place; Petavius, lib. vi. de Trin. chap. 1.; Dr. Pearson on the Creed, p. 11.; Dr. Hammond's note on St. Luke, chap. i, p.
203, &c. However, St. John shews us that he meant him who was the true God, by telling us that the world, and every thing
that was made, was made by this word, or logos; that in this word was life; that he was in the world, and
was the light of the world; that he had glory, as the glory of the only begotten of the Father, &c.
 Ver. 3. Omnia per ipsum facta sunt: panta di autou egeneto:
all things were made by him. Let not any one pretend that di autou, in this verse signifies no more than,
that all creatures were made by the Word, or Son of God, ministerially, as if he was only the instrument
of the eternal Father, and in a manner inferior to that by which they were created by the Father, the
chief and principal cause of all things; of whom the apostle says, ex ou ta panta, ex ipso omnia.
--- Origen, unless perhaps his writings were corrupted by the Arians, seems to have given occasion to this leptologia,
as St. Basil calls it, to groundless quibbling and squabbling about the sense of the prepositions; when he tells us, (tom.
ii, in Joan. p. 55. Ed. Huetii.) the di ou never has the first place, but always the second place,
meaning as to dignity: oudepote ten proten choran echei to di ou, deuteran de aei. It is like many other
false and unwarrantable assertions in Origen; as when we find in the same commentary on St. John, that he says only God the
Father is called o Theos. Origen may perhaps be excused as to what he writes about di ou
and ex ou, as if he spoke only with a regard to the divine processions in God, in which the Father
is the first person, from whom proceeds even the eternal Son, the second person. But whatever Origen thought, or meant,
whom St. Epiphanius calls the father of Arius, whose works, as then extant, were condemned in the fifth General Council; it
appears that the Arians, in particular Aetius, of the Eunomian sect, pretended that ex ou had always a
more eminent signification, and was only applied to the Father; the Father, said he, being the true God, the only principal
efficient cause of all things; and di ou was applied to the word, or Son of God, who was not the same true
God, to signify his interior and ministerial production, as he was the instrument of the Father. Aetius, without regard
to other places in the Scripture, as we read in St. Basil, (lib. de Sp. S. chap. ii. p. 293. Ed. Morelli. an. 1637) produced
these words of the apostle: (1 Corinthians viii. 6.) eis Theos, pater, ex ou ta panta ... kai eis kurios, Iesous
Christos; di ou panta: unus Deus, Pater, ex quo omnia, ... et unus Dominus Jesus Christus; per quem omnia. He concluded
from hence, that as the prepositions were different, so were the natures and substance of the Father and of the Son. --- But
that no settled and certain rule can be built on these prepositions, and that di ou, in this third verse
of the first chapter of St. John, has no diminishing signification, so that the Son was equally the proper
and principal efficient cause of all things that were made and created, we have the authority of the greatest doctors,
and the most learned and exact writers of the Greek Church, who knew both the doctrine of the Catholic Church, and the rules
and use of the Greek tongue. --- St. Basil (lib. de Spir. S. chap. iii. et seq.) ridicules this leptologian,
which, he says, had its origin from the vain and profane philosophy of the heathen writers, about the difference of causes.
He denies that there is any fixed rule; and brings examples, in which di ou is applied to the Father, and ex
ou to the Son. --- St. Gregory of Nazianzus denies this difference, (Orat. xxxvii, p. 604. Ed. Morelli. Parisiis,
ann. 1630) and affirms that ex ou, and di ou, in the Scripture, are said
of all the three divine Persons. --- St. Chrysostom says the same; and brings examples, to shew it on this verse of St. John;
and tells us expressly that di ou, in this verse, has no diminishing nor inferior signification: ei
de to di ou nomizeis elattoseos einai, &c. --- St. Cyril of Alexandria, (lib. i. in Joan. p. 48.) makes the very
same remark, and with the like examples. His words are: Quod si existiment (Ariani) per quem, di ou,
substantiam ejus (Filii) de æqualitate cum Patre dejicere, ita ut minister sit potius quam Creator, ad se redeant
insani, &c. --- St. Ambrose, a doctor of the Latin Church, (lib. ii. de Sp. S. 10. p. 212. 213. Ed. Par. an. 1586.) confutes,
with St. Basil, the groundless and pretended differences of ex quo and per quem. --- I shall only here produce
that one passage in Romans, (Chap. xi. 36.) which St. Basil and St. Ambrose make use of, where we read: ex ipso, et per ipsum,
et in ipso sunt omnia, (ex autou, kai di autou, kai eis auton ta panta) et in ipsum omnia. Now either we expound
all the three parts of this sentence, as spoken of the Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, (as both St. Basil and St. Ambrose understand
them) and then ex ou is applied to the Son; or we understand them of the Father, and di ou
is applied to the first Person: or, in fine, as St. Augustine observes, (lib. i. de Trin. chap. 6.) we interpret them in such
a manner, that the first part be understood of the Father, the second of the Son, the third of the Holy Ghost; and then the
words that immediately follow in the singular number, to him be glory for ever, shew that all the three Persons are
but one in nature, one God; and to all, and to each of the three Persons, the whole sentence belongs. --- Had I not already
said more than may seem necessary on these words, I might add all the Greek bishops in the council of Florence, when they
came to an union with the Latin bishops about the procession of the Holy Ghost. After many passages had been quoted out of
the ancient Fathers, some of which had said that the Holy Ghost proceeded from the Father and the Son, ek tou patros,
kai ek tou uiou, many others had asserted that he proceeded ek tou Patros dia tou uiou; Bessarion,
the learned Grecian bishop, in a long oration, (Sess. 25.) shewed that di uiou was the same as ek
tou uiou. The Fathers, said he, shew, deiknusin isodunamousan te ek ten dia. See tom. xiii. Conc.
Lab. p. 435. All the others allowed this to be true, as the emperor John Paleologus observed. (p. 487.) And the patriarch
of Constantinople, when he was about to subscribe, declared the same: esti to dia tou uiou, tauton to ek tou uiou.
Can any one imagine that none of these learned Grecians should know the force and use of these two prepositions, in their
 Ver. 14. Gloriam quasi Unigeniti, os monogenous.
St. Chrysostom says, the word quasi, os, does no ways here diminish, be even confirms and increases the
signification; as when we say of a king, that he carries himself like a king. To de os entauthen ouch omoioseos
estin, alla bebaioseos.
 Ver. 15 and 27. Ante me factus est, emprosthen mou gegonen,
is preferred before me: St. Chrysostom says, he is lamproteros, entimoteros, illustrios, honorabilior.
 Ver. 16. Gratiam pro gratia, charin anti charitos,
gratiam; so Job, (ii. 4.) pellem pro pelle, i.e. omnem pellem.
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The divinity and incarnation of Christ. John bears witness
of him. He begins to call his disciples.
1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word
2 The same was in the beginning with God.
3 All things were made by him: and without him was made nothing that was
4 In him was life, and the life was the light of men.
5 And the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend
6 *There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.
7 This man came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men
might believe through him.
8 He was not the light, but was to bear witness of the light.
9 *That was the true light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into
10 He was in the world, *and the world was made by him, and the world knew
11 He came unto his own, and his own received him not.
12 But as many as received him, he gave to them power to be made the sons
of God, to them that believe in his name.
13 Who are born, not of blood, nor of the will of flesh, nor of will of
man, but of God.
14 *And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us: we saw his glory,
the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.
15 John beareth witness of him: and crieth out, saying: This was he of
whom I spoke, He that shall come after me, is preferred before me, because he was before me.
16 *And of his fulness we all have received, and grace for grace.
17 For the law was given by Moses, grace and truth by Jesus Christ.
18 *No man hath seen God at any time: the only begotten Son who is in the
bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.
19 And this is the testimony of John, when the Jews sent from Jerusalem
priests and Levites to him, to ask him: Who art thou?
20 And he confessed, and did not deny: and he confessed: I am not the Christ.
21 And they asked him: What then? Art thou Elias? and he said: I am not.
Art thou the prophet? And he answered: No.
22 They said therefore to him: Who art thou, that we may give an answer
to them that sent us? What sayest thou of thyself?
23 He said: *I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness: Make straight
the way of the Lord, as the prophet, Isaias, said.
24 And they that were sent, were of the Pharisees.
25 And they asked him, and said to him: Why then dost thou baptize, if
thou be not Christ, nor Elias, nor the prophet?
26 John answered them, saying: *I baptize with water: but there hath stood
one in the midst of you, whom you know not.
27 * The same is he that shall come after me, who is preferred before me:
the latchet of whose shoe I am not worthy to loose.
28 These things were done in Bethania beyond the Jordan, where John was
29 The next day John saw Jesus coming to him, and he saith: Behold the
lamb of God, behold him who taketh away the sins of the world.
30 This is he of whom I said: After me cometh a man, who is preferred before
me, because he was before me.
31 And I knew him not, but that he may be made manifest in Israel, therefore
am I come baptizing with water.
32 And John gave testimony, saying: *I saw the Spirit coming down as a
dove from heaven, and he remained upon him.
33 And I knew him not; but he, who sent me to baptize with water, said
to me: He upon whom thoiu shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, he it is that baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.
34 And I saw: and I gave testimony, that this is the Son of God.
35 Again, the following day, John stood, and two of his disciples.
36 And looking upon Jesus, walking, he saith: Behold the lamb of God.
37 And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus.
38 And Jesus turning, and seeing them following him, saith to them: What
seek you? They said to him: Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, master) where dwellest thou?
39 He saith to them: Come and see. They came, and saw where he abode, and
they staid with him that day: now it was about the tenth hour.
40 And Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who had heard
of John, and followed him.
41 He first findeth his own brother, Simon, and saith to him: We have found
the Messias; which is, being interpreted, the Christ.
42 And he brought him to Jesus. And Jesus looking upon him, said: Thou
art Simon, the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is interpreted, Peter.
43 On the following day he would go forth into Galilee, and he findeth
Philip. And Jesus saith to him: Follow me.
44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter.
45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and said to him: We have found him of whom
*Moses in the law, **and the prophets did write, Jesus, the son of Joseph, of Nazareth.
46 And Nathanael said to him: Can any thing of good come from Nazareth?
Philip saith to him: Come and see.
47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him: and he saith of him; Behold an Israelite
indeed, in whom there is no guile.
48 Nathanael said to him: Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered, and said
to him: Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee.
49 Nathanael answered him, and said: Rabbi, thou art the Son of God, thou
art the king of Israel.
50 Jesus answered, and said to him: Because I said to thee, I saw thee
under the fig-tree, thou believest: greater things than these shalt thou see.
51 And he saith to him: Amen, amen, I say to you, you shall see the heaven
opened, and the Angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.
6: Matthew iii. 1.; Mark i. 4.
9: John iii. 19.
10: Hebrews xi. 3.
14: Matthew i. 16.; Luke ii. 7.
16: 1 Timothy vi. 17.
18: 1 Timothy vi. 16.; 1 John iv. 12.
23: Isaias xl. 3.; Matthew iii. 3.; Mark i. 3.; Luke iii. 4.
26: Matthew iii. 11.
27: Mark i. 7.; Luke iii. 16.; Acts i. 5. and xi. 16. and xix. 4.
32: Matthew iii. 16.; Mark i. 10.; Luke iii. 22.
45: Genesis xlix 10.; Deuteronomy xviii. 18. --- ** Isaias xl. 10. and
xiv. 8.; Jeremias xxiii. 5.; Ezechiel xxxiv. 23. and xxxvii. 24.; Daniel ix. 24. and 25.