4 Kings xxiv.
Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 1. Days.
At the end of the third year, Daniel i. 1., and Jeremias xxv. 1. Nabuchadonosor, in the first year of his reign, (Jeremias
xxv. 1.) being associated in the empire by his aged father Nabopolassar, came up to attack Carchemis, (Jeremias xlvi.
1.) and the other dominions of Egypt, (ver. 7.) and their ally or vassal Joakim. He took the city of Jerusalem, and
carried off many of the sacred vessels and captives, (Daniel i.; Calmet) conducting the king himself to prison, for a short
time, when he set him at liberty, on condition that he should pay tribute, 2 Paralipomenon xxxvi. 6. (Tirinus) --- Joakim
obeyed for 3 years. --- Then again. Hebrew, "he turned and rebelled." This was the first time, as he had before
been subject to Egypt, and was attacked on that account. He probably took advantage of the absence of Nabuchodonosor, who
was gone with haste to secure all the dominions of his deceased father. In the 7th year of his reign, he sent rovers
to punish Joakim. When the latter had reigned near 11 years, they reduced the kingdom, and treated the king's corpse with
the utmost indignity, Jeremias xxii. 19. (Tirinus)
Ver. 2. The
rovers. Latrunculos. Bands or parties of men, who pillaged and plundered wherever they came. (Challoner) See chap. v.
2., and Judges xi. 3. --- Nabuchodonosor could not come in person. --- Prophets. Holda, supra chap. xxii. 16., and
Isaias xx. 17., and Jeremias xiv., xv., xvi., &c.
Ver. 5. Did.
Paralipomenon, and his abominations which he wrought, and the things which were found in him. This St. Jerome, (Trad.)
explains of certain diabolical marks on his body, shewing him to be devoted to the fiend Codonasar. Such are often found on
magicians. (Menochius) --- Thus the priests of Baal cut themselves, 3 Kings xviii. 28. (Haydock)
Ver. 6. Joachin,
who is styled Jechonias, Matthew i., and Conias [in] Jeremias xxii. 24. The prophet counts his reign as nothing, because it
was so limited by the Chaldeans, and continued only three months, Jeremias xxxvi. 30.
Ver. 7. Egypt,
at least from the eastern mouth of the Nile, at Damietta, to the Euphrates. Nechao had conquered all those countries: but
now he was driven into his ancient territories. After some time he attempted to relieve Sedecias, but war repulsed
by Nabuchodonosor, who soon after took Jerusalem, Jeremias xxxvii. 6. (Calmet) --- Again, during the reign of Joachin.
Ver. 8. Eighteen.
One Hebrew manuscript reads "thirteen," (Haydock) or 3 instead of 8. (Kennicott) --- The number seems also (Haydock) to be
incorrect in Paralipomenon, where we find that Joachin was only eight years old, as the Syriac and Arabic have 18 in
both places, and it could not well be said, that he did evil, &c., (ver. 9.) at the age of 8, much less that he
had wives so soon, ver. 15. (Calmet) --- Some attempt to reconcile both places, by saying that the eight years refer
to the commencement of his father's reign; (Junius) which is very unusual: (Calmet) or to the servitude of Babylon, when Jerusalem
was taken under Joakim. (Hardouin.) --- Sanctius conjectures that Joachin was associated with his father when he was 10 years
old, and after 8 years became sole king. (Kimchi, &c.) (Du Hamel)
Ver. 9. Done.
Ezechiel xix. 5., and Jeremias xxii. 24., speak of this king under the name of (Haydock) Jechonias. (Calmet)
Ver. 10. Came.
Hebrew, "servants....he came." But several manuscripts are more accurate and grammatical, "they came." (Kennicott) (Haydock)
Ver. 12. Went
out. Josephus (Jewish Wars vi. 8.) insinuates, to save the vessels of the temple. --- Jeremias had persuaded him to desist
from making resistance. (Tirinus) --- Nabuchodonosor did not comply with his promise, (Menochius) but took the king and all
the artificers (ver. 14.) to Babylon, that the former might not attempt to revenge the injuries done to his father, nor the
latter contribute to fortify the towns. The Philistines had deprived the Israelites of blacksmiths, with the same design,
1 Kings vii., and xiii. (Angelomus.) (Tirinus) --- Eighth; commencing, or at the end of the seventh, Jeremias
lii. (Du Hamel)
Ver. 13. All,
or a great part; for some were still left, 1 Esdras i. --- Which: or like unto those which Solomon had made.
The identical vessels had been perhaps (Du Hamel) plundered. (Menochius) --- Nabuchodonosor took away the sacred vessels at
three different times: 1. under Joakim. These he placed in the temple of his god; and they were afterwards profaned
by Baltassar, and restored by Cyrus, Daniel i. 2., and v. 5., and 1 Esdras i. 7. 2. Many he now broke in pieces. 3.
Under Sedecias, he took probably what that prince had made, chap. xxv. 13., and Baruch i. 7 --- Lord, by Isaias (xxxix.
6.; supra chap. xx. 17.) and Jeremias, xv. 13.
Ver. 14. All;
the chief men, chap. xxv. 18. Ezechiel and Mardocheus were in the number. --- Engraver. The first term means a workman
in wood, stone, &c.; the latter seems to designate a mason, smith, or garrison-soldier; (Calmet) or one expert in making
camps; (Sa) an engineer. (Tirinus) --- St. Jerome explains it of one who enchases jewels in gold. (Menochius) --- Hecateus
and Demetrius (ap. Jos.[Josephus?] and Clement of Alexandria) mention this transportation. (Du Hamel)
Ver. 15. Judges.
Hebrew, "the rams." Chaldean, "the grandees." These are not included in the 10,000, (ver. 14.) nor more than (Calmet) the
8,000 who were taken from the country (ver. 16.; Calmet) or 3,000 were taken from Jerusalem, and 7,000 from other places.
Ver. 17. Uncle,
the third son of Josias, who was placed on the throne. (Haydock) --- The eldest, (Menochius) called Johanan, seems to have
died in his youth. (Calmet) --- Sedecias means, "the justice of God," (Tirinus) as Nabuchodonosor had adjured him,
or made him swear by God; (2 Paralipomenon xxxvi. 15.; Haydock) and thus insinuated, that, if he proved faithless,
he should feel the effects of God's justice, as it happened. (Tirinus)
Ver. 19. Done.
He was not deterred by his punishment, nor by the admonition of Jeremias, xxxvii. 2., and 2 Paralipomenon xxxvi. 12. The prophet
informs us, that the priests and people defiled the temple of God. See Ezechiel viii., &c. (Calmet)
Ver. 20. Revolted.
Literally, "departed;" (Haydock) "broke his covenant;" (Septuagint) acting contrary to his oath, (Paralipomenon) and to the
dictates of prudence. God permitted this to take place, in the 8th year of Sedecias. (Calmet)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
The reigns of Joakim, Joachin, and Sedecias.
1 In his days Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon, came up, *and Joakim became
his servant three years: then again he rebelled against him.
2 And the Lord sent against him the rovers of the Chaldees, and the rovers
of Syria, and the rovers of Moab, and the rovers of the children of Ammon: and he sent them against Juda, to destroy it;*
according to the word of the Lord, which he had spoken by his servants, the prophets.
3 And this came by the word of the Lord against Juda, to remove them from
before him for all the sins of Manasses which he did;
4 And for the innocent blood that he shed, filling Jerusalem with innocent
blood: and therefore the Lord would not be appeased.
5 But the rest of the acts of Joakim, and all that he did, are they not
written in the Book of the words of the days of the kings of Juda? And Joakim slept with his fathers:
6 And Joachin, his son, reigned in his stead.
7 And the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his own country:
for the king of Babylon had taken all that had belonged to the king of Egypt, from the river of Egypt, unto the river Euphrates.
8 Joachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign, *and he reigned
three months in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Nohesta, the daughter of Elnathan, of Jerusalem.
9 And he did evil before the Lord, according to all that his father had
10 *At that time the servants of Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon, came
up against Jerusalem, and the city was surrounded with their forts.
11 And Nabuchodonosor, king of Babylon, came to the city, with his servants,
to assault it.
12 And Joachin, king of Juda, went out to the king of Babylon, he, and
his mother, and his servants, and his nobles, and his eunuchs: and the king of Babylon received him in the eighth year of
13 And he brought out from thence all the treasures of the house of the
Lord, and the treasures of the king's house: and he cut in pieces all the vessels of gold which Solomon, king of Israel, had
made in the temple of the Lord, according to the word of the Lord.*
14 And he carried away all Jerusalem, and all the princes, and all the
valiant men of the army, to the number of ten thousand, into captivity: and every artificer and smith: and none were left,
but the poor sort of the people of the land.
15 *And he carried away Joachin into Babylon, and the king's mother, and
the king's wives, and his eunuchs: and the judges of the land he carried into captivity, from Jerusalem, into Babylon.
16 And all the strong men, seven thousand, and the artificers, and the
smiths, a thousand, all that were valiant men, and fit for war: and the king of Babylon led them captives into Babylon.
17 *And he appointed Matthanias, his uncle, in his stead: and called his
18 Sedecias was one and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he
reigned eleven years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Amital, the daughter of Jeremias, of Lobna.
19 And he did evil before the Lord, according to all that Joakim had done.
20 For the Lord was angry against Jerusalem and against Juda, till he cast
them out from his face: and Sedecias revolted from the king of Babylon.
1: Year of the World 3398, Year before Christ 606.
2: 4 Kings xxiii. 27.
8: Year of the World 3405, Year before Christ 599.
10: Daniel i. 1.
13: Isaias xxx. 6.
15: 2 Paralipomenon xxxvi. 10.; Esther ii. 6. and xi. 4.; Ezechiel xvii.
12.; Jeremias xxiv. 1. and xxxix. 2.
17: Jeremias xxxvii. 1. and lii. 1.