Notes & Commentary:
Ver. 2. By
night. Nicodemus was at this time weak in faith, and therefore did not wish to endanger himself by coming to our Saviour
in open day, when the enemies of Christ could see him. For many (as this evangelist informs us in chap. xii. ver. 42,) of
the chief men also believed in him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess, that they might not be cast out of
the Synagogue. (St. Chrysostom) --- It appears from this verse that Jesus Christ wrought many miracles, even in the first
year of his preaching: though not very publicly, and amidst the crowd. However, few of those which he performed in Judea are
noticed by the evangelist.
Ver. 5. Unless
a man be born again of water, and the Holy Ghost. Though the word Holy be now wanting in all Greek copies, it is
certainly the sense. The ancient Fathers, and particularly St. Augustine in divers places, from these words, prove the necessity
of giving baptism to infants: and by Christ's adding water, is excluded a metaphorical baptism. See also Acts viii.
36. and x. 47. and Titus iii. 5. (Witham) --- Except a man be born again. That is, unless you are born again by a spiritual
regeneration in God, all the knowledge which you learn from me, will not be spiritual but carnal. But I say to you, that neither
you nor any other person, unless you be born again in God, can understand or conceive the glory which is in me. (St. Chrysostom)
Ver. 8. The
Spirit breatheth where he will. The Protestant translation has the wind: and so it is expounded by St. Chrysostom
and St. Cyril on this verse; as if Christ compared the motions of the Holy Ghost to the wind, of which men can give
so little account, whence it comes, or whither it goes. Yet many others, as St. Augustine, St. Ambrose and St. Gregory, understand
this expression of the Holy Ghost, of whom it can only be properly said, that he breatheth where he will. (Witham)
Ver. 10. And
knoweth not these things. That is, of baptism given by in a visible manner, and you understand not, how will you comprehend
greater and heavenly things, if I speak of them? (Witham) --- Many passages, both in the law and the prophets, implied this
doctrine of regeneration; for what else can be the meaning of the circumcision of the heart, commanded by Moses;
(Deuteronomy x. 16.) of the renewal of a clean and right spirit, prayed for by David; (Psalm l.) of God's giving his people
a new heart and a new spirit. (Ezechiel xxxvi. 26, &c.) But the Pharisees, taken up with their rites and traditions, paid
little attention to spiritual things of greater moment.
Ver. 11. We
speak what we know. It may perhaps be asked here, why Christ speaks in the plural number? To this we must answer, that
it is the only Son of God, who is here speaking, showing us how the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the Father, and the
Holy Ghost proceeding from both. (St. Thomas Aquinas)
Ver. 13. No
man hath ascended---but he that descended from heaven, the Son of man, who is in heaven. These words, divers times repeated
by our Saviour, in their literal and obvious sense, shew that Christ was in heaven, and had a being before he was born of
the Virgin Mary, against the Cerinthians, &c. That he descended from heaven: that when he was made man, and conversed
with men on earth, he was at the same time in heaven. Some Socinians give us here their groundless fancy, that Jesus after
his baptism took a journey to heaven, and returned again before his death. Nor yet would this make him in heaven, when
he spoke this to his disciples. (Witham)
Ver. 14. This
comparison of the serpent lifted up in the desert, upon which whoever looked was immediately cured from the bite of the fiery
serpents, is a figure of the crucifixion of Christ on Calvary. And we remark, that our divine Saviour makes use of these words,
the Son of man must be lifted up or exalted; (exaltari) by which form of expression he would teach us, that
he does not consider the cross as a disgrace, but as a glory; (Theophylactus and St. Chrysostom) and moreover, that as the
Israelites, bitten by the fiery serpents, were cured by looking upon the brazen serpent, so are Christians cured by looking
up with an active faith, replete with love and confidence, on Jesus Christ crucified.
Give his only begotten Son---God sent not his Son into the world. He was then his Son, his only begotten Son, before
he sent him into the world. He was not, therefore, his Son, only by the incarnation, but was his Son from the beginning,
as he was also his word from all eternity. This was the constant doctrine of the Church, and of the Fathers, against
the heresy of the Arians, that God was always Father, and the Son always the eternal Son of the eternal Father.
See note on chap. i. ver. 14. (Witham) --- The world may be saved. Why, says St. Augustine, is Christ called the Saviour
of the world, unless from the obligation he took upon himself at his birth? He has come like a good physician, effectually
to save mankind. The man, therefore, destroys himself, who refuses to follow the prescriptions of his physician. (St. Augustine)
Ver. 18. Is
not judged. He that believeth, viz. by a faith working through charity, is not judged; that is, is not condemned;
but the obstinate unbeliever is judged; that is, condemned already, by retrenching himself from the society
of Christ and his Church. (Challoner)
Ver. 19. The
judgment. That is, the cause of his condemnation. (Challoner)
Ver. 22. And
baptized. Not Christ himself, but his disciples. See chap. iv. 2. (Witham)
Ver. 23. Salem.
A town situated upon the river Jordan, where formerly Melchisedech reigned. (Ven. Bede)
Ver. 29. He
of whom you complain is the bridegroom, and I am the friend of the bridegroom, sent before to prepare his bride; that is,
to collect for him a Church from all nations. (Alcuin.) --- The servants of the bridegroom do not rejoice in the same manner
as his friends: I am his friend, and I rejoice with very great joy, because of the bridegroom's voice. He must increase, and
I must decrease; by which words the great precursor demonstrates to the world, that not the least envy with regard to his
divine Master rankles in his heart; but on the contrary, that he should be happy to see all his followers desert him, to run
to Jesus Christ. (St. Chrysostom)
Ver. 30. He
(Christ) must increase, not in virtue and perfection, with which he is replenished, but in the opinion of the world,
when they begin to know him, and believe in him: and in like manner, I must be diminished, when they know how much he is above
Ver. 31. He
that cometh from above, meaning Christ. He that is of the earth, meaning himself, is from the earth,
is earthly, is but a frail and infirm man; and so speaketh as from the earth: this seems rather the sense, than
that he speaketh of, or concerning the earth. See the Greek text. (Witham)
Ver. 32. What
he hath seen and heard. The meaning is not by his senses, but what he knows for certain, having the same knowledge as
his eternal Father. See chap. v., ver. 19. And no one; i.e. but few now receive his testimony. (Witham)
Ver. 33. He
that hath received his testimony. These following words to the end of the chapter, seem to be the words of St. John the
Baptist, rather than of the evangelist. The sense is, whosoever hath believed, and received the doctrine of Christ, hath attested
as it were under his hand and seal, that God is true, and hath executed his promise concerning the Messias. (Witham)
Ver. 34. Doth
not give the Spirit by measure. Christ, even as man, has a plenitude of graces. See chapt. i. ver. 14. And all things,
all creatures, both in heaven and earth, are given into his hands, and made subject to him, as man. See 1 Corinthians
xv. 26. (Witham)
Ver. 35. The
Father loveth the Son. The Father loveth John, loveth Paul, yet he hath not given all things into their hands. The Father
loveth the Son, not as a lord does his servants, not as an adopted Son, but as his only begotten Son; therefore hath he given
all things into his hands, that as the Father is, so may the Son be. (St. Augustine)
The divinity of the Son is in this chapter proved as clearly as in 1 John v. 7. "There are three who give testimony in heaven;
the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one." Which verse is entirely omitted by Luther in his version;
for which omission he is severely reproved by Keckerman. But while Catholics and Protestants deduce from this and many other
places in Scripture, the divinity of Jesus Christ, as an indubitable and irrefragable consequence, how may learned Arians,
Socinians, and Unitarians read the same texts, and deduce quite contrary consequences? How clearly does this prove that the
Bible only cannot prove the exclusive rule of faith. With reason does the Cambridge divinity professor, Dr. Herbert
Marsh, ask in his late publication on this subject, p. 18, "Are all Protestants alike in their religion? Have we not got Protestants
of the Church of England, Protestants of the Church of Scotland, Protestants who hold the profession of Augsburgh? Have we
not both Arminian and Calvinistic Protestants? Are not the Moravians, the Methodists, the Baptists, the Quakers, and even
the Jumpers, the Dunkers, the Swedenborgians, all Protestants? Since, then Protestantism assumes so many different forms,
men speak quite indefinitely, if they speak of it without explaining the particular kind which they mean. When I hear
of a Swedish or a Danish Protestant, I know that it means a person whose religion is the Bible only, as expounded by
the Synod of Dort. In like manner a Protestant of the Church of England, is a person whose religion is the Bible
only; but the Bible as expounded by its Liturgy and Articles. How, therefore, can we know, if we give the
Bible only, what sort of Protestantism well be deduced from it?" --- In the same publication, Dr. Herbert Marsh, p.
21, adds, "Protestants of every description, however various and even opposite in their opinions, claim severally for
themselves the honour of deducing from the Bible irrefragable and indubitable consequences. The doctrine of conditional salvation
is an indubitable consequence to the Arminian. The doctrine of absolute decree, an indubitable consequence to the Calvinist.
The doctrines of the trinity, the atonement and the sacraments, which the Church of England considers as indubitable consequences
of the Bible, would not be so, if the Unitarians and Quakers were right in the consequences which they draw from the Bible.
But the consequences which they deduce appear indubitable to them." This the professor properly styles protestantism in the
abstract, or generalized, and nearly allied to apostacy from Christianity: a system, p. 16, "by which many a pilgrim has lost
his way between the portal of the temple and the altar---disdaining the gate belonging only to the priests, and approaching
at once the portals of the temple, they have ventured without a clue, to explore the inmost recesses; and have been bewildered
in their way, till at length they have wandered to the devious passage, where Christianity itself becomes lost from the view."
See his Inquiry into the consequences of neglecting to give the Prayer-Book with the Bible.
 Ver. 16, 17. Aei Theos, aei uios; ama pater, ama uios.
Arius began his heresy by denying this, as it appears in his letter to Eusebius, of Nicomedia, in St. Epiphanius, hær. 69,
 Ver. 31. Qui est de terra, de terra est, o on ek tes ges,
ek tes ges esti, kai ek tes ges lalei. et de terra loquitur.
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Christ's discourse with Nicodemus. John's testimony.
1 And there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the
2 This man came to Jesus by night, and said to him: Rabbi, we know that
thou art come a teacher from God: for no man can do these miracles, which thou dost, unless God be with him.
3 Jesus answered and said to him: Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a
man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
4 Nicodemus saith to him: How can a man be born, when he is old? can
he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born again?
5 Jesus answered: Amen, amen, I say to thee, unless a man be born again
of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
6 That which is born of the flesh, is flesh: and that which is born of
the spirit, is spirit.
7 Wonder not that I said to thee, you must be born again.
8 The Spirit breatheth where he will, and thou hearest his voice; *but
thou knowest not whence he cometh, nor whither he goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
9 Nicodemus answered, and said to him: How can these things be done?
10 Jesus answered, and said to him: Art thou a master in Israel, and
knowest not these things?
11 Amen, amen, I say to thee: that we speak what we know, and we testify
what we have seen, and you receive not our testimony.
12 If I have spoken to you earthly things, and you believe not: how will
you believe if I shall speak to you heavenly things?
13 And no man hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended from heaven,
the Son of Man, who is in heaven.
14 *And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the Son
of Man be lifted up:
15 That whosoever believeth in him, may not perish, but may have life
16 *For God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son: that
whosoever believeth in him, may not perish, but may have life everlasting.
17 For God sent not his Son into the world, to judge the world, but that
the world may be saved by him.
18 He that believeth in him is not judged: but he that doth not believe,
is already judged: because he believeth not in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
19 And this is the judgment: *because the light is come into the world,
and men loved darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil.
20 For every one that doth evil hateth the light, and cometh not to the
light, that his works may not be reproved.
21 But he that doth truth, cometh to the light, that his works may be
made manifest, because they are done in God.
22 After these things, Jesus and his disciples came into the land of
Judea: and there he abode with them, *and baptized.
23 And John also was baptizing in Ennon, near Salem; because there was
much water there: and they came, and were baptized.
24 For John was not yet cast into the prison.
25 And there arose a question between some of John's disciples of John
and the Jews, concerning purification.
26 And they came to John, and said to him: Rabbi, he that was with thee
beyond the Jordan, *to whom thou gavest testimony, behold he baptizeth, and all men come to him.
27 John answered, and said: A man cannot receive any thing unless it
be given him from heaven.
28 You yourselves do bear me witness, *that I said, I am not the
Christ; but that I am sent before him.
29 He that hath the bride, is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom,
who standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth with joy, because of the bridegroom's voice. This my joy, therefore, is fulfilled.
30 Him must increase, but I must decrease.
31 He that cometh from above, is above all. He that is of the earth,
of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh. He that cometh from heaven is above all.
32 And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and no man receiveth
33 He that hath received his testimony, hath attested by his seal that
*God is true.
34 For he whom God hath sent, speaketh the words of God: for God doth
not give the Spirit by measure.
35 The Father loveth the Son: and he hath given all things into his hand.
36 *He that believeth in the Son hath life everlasting: but he that believeth
not the Son, shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.
8: Psalm cxxxiv. 7.
14: Numbers xxi. 9.
16: 1 John iv. 9.
19: John i. 9.
22: John iv. 1.
26: John i. 19.
28: John i. 25.
33: Romans iii. 4.
36: 1 John v. 10.