2 Paralipomenon xiii.
Notes & Commentary:
Michaia, alias Maacha. Her father had also two names; viz., Absalom or Abessalom, and Uriel. (Challoner) --- Many had
two names. (Tirinus) --- Of Gabaa, may refer to the women.
War. The author of the new edition of St. Jerome mentions two manuscripts and there are several printed editions, which
reduce these numbers to one half. Castalio adopts this correction, asserting that the Greek and Josephus are on his side,
which is not true. (Calmet) --- We must however observe, that there is some doubt with respect to Josephus, (Haydock) as some
of the oldest Latin editions acknowledge the smaller numbers; and Vignoles (i. 29.) conjectures, that the Greek copies did
the same formerly, since Aborbanel "accuses Josephus of having made Jeroboam's loss no more than 50,000, contrary to the Hebrew
text," ver. 17. This learned author is of opinion, that the Jews sometimes expressed their numbers by figures, (Kennicott)
analogous to those which the later Arabs borrowed from the Indians; though, in more ancient times, the letters of the alphabet
had been used. Both customs seem to have prevailed; (Erpenius) and this may account for many variations, as the omission of
a single cypher, resembling our period (.), might easily occasion much confusion. Kennicott (Diss. i., and ii.) seems to suspect,
that the ancient versions have been made to agree with the corrupted Hebrew, no less than Josephus; and that many of the large
numbers, recorded in Scripture, (which might countenance what we here read) are incorrect. See chap. xvii. 13, 19., and xiv.
8., comp.[compare] with xvi. 1., and xxv. 6., comp.[compare] with 4 Kings xiii. 7. It is certain (Haydock) many Latin manuscripts
confirm the edition of Sixtus V, which has the smaller numbers; and this is the case with most of the older manuscripts and
editions. How St. Jerome expressed it, we cannot easily determine. The editor of his works has been guided chiefly by the
Memmian canon. See 2 Kings xv. 7. Lyranus quotes St. Jerome, as reading 50,000; (ver. 7) and it is so expressed in the Paris
editions of 1534 and (Haydock) 1546, of the Hebrew questions on Paralipomenon. But Erasmus doubts whether this be the genuine
work of St. Jerome, (Kennicott) or in the state in which he left it. If we consult the more ancient manuscripts and editions,
prior to that of Clement VIII, we shall allow that they are more favourable to the smaller numbers, on this occasion; and
are more likely to exhibit the pure version of the holy doctor, (Haydock) as the later editions have had "the Hebrew fountains"
also in view. (Kennicott) --- If however we adhere to the received numbers, (Haydock) we must remember that kings, at that
time, led forth to battle all their subjects who were able to bear arms. Under Moses there were 600,000. David found 1,100,000
in Israel, and 470,000 in Juda, exclusive of Levi and Benjamin; (chap. xxi. 5.) or, at least, as it is expressed [in] 2 Kings
xxiv. 9., in all, 1,300,000. Asa was at the head of 580,000, chap. xiv. 8., &c.
Semeron, on which Samaria was afterwards built. Hebrew reads, "Mount Tsemaraim." There was a city of this name in Benjamin.
(Calmet) --- But this was a mount. Hebrew, "in Mount Ephraim." (Haydock)
A covenant of salt. That is, a firm and perpetual covenant. See Numbers xviii. 19. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- It
seemed this covenant was to be inviolable; and it had its effect, notwithstanding the crimes of many of the kings. The Arabs
still regard the partaking of bread and salt as the most sacred covenant. (Calmet) --- "The ancients prayed when they placed
salt before their guests, that, as salt partook of two natures, so they might be cemented together in concord." (Tzetzez on
Lycoph.) (Haydock) --- Abia speaks with much prudence, and with an air of piety, though his heart was corrupt, 3 Kings xv.
3. That of his adversary was still more so; and God granted victory to the former, to reward even the appearance of virtue
in the king, and the sincere piety of some of his followers.
Vain. The same term is used as in Matthew v. 22. (Calmet) --- Rekim, "stupid men." (Haydock) --- Septuagint,
"pestiferous." Syriac, "impious." --- Heart. Protestants, "young and tender-hearted." (Haydock) --- But Roboam was
not very young; (3 Kings xiv. 21.) and we may adhere to the Vulgate. (Calmet) --- Septuagint, "he was a youth, and timid."
(Haydock) --- Abia speaks of his father with little respect, and seems to have forgotten that he had laid down his arms in
obedience to God's order. (Calmet)
And golden. These idols will enervate and render your great numbers useless. (Haydock) --- We have a just cause and
religion is on our side. (Calmet)
Rams. These were sacrificed by the false priests, who acted in a very different manner from those of the Lord, Leviticus
viii., and ix. (Calmet)
Table. It is hence inferred, that Sesac had only left one: (Lyranus; Torniel.) but this does not follow. (Calmet) (Salien)
Trumpets, to invoke God's aid, Numbers x. 9. (Menochius)
Terrified. Septuagint, "struck;" God caused the victory to declare in favour of those who were only half the number.
Five. Some Latin editions have 50,000, (Calmet) which number is found in some manuscripts of Epiphanius. (Hudson's
Josephus) --- Hentenius has the same, and only remarks five manuscripts which had the greater number. See ver. 3. (Haydock)
--- We do not read of such a slaughter in any one battle. But Israel made no resistance, and God assisted the four hundred
thousand. (Menochius) --- Valiant. Protestants, "chosen." See chap xiv. 13. (Haydock) --- So many were either slain
or wounded. (Du Hamel) --- Protestants intimate all were "slain." (Haydock)
Bethel, the head of the calf worship; though Abulensis thinks it was another city, otherwise it would not have been
spared. The calf continued there till the reign of Jehu, 4 Kings x. 29. (Menochius) --- Jesana; perhaps Senna, (Numbers
xxxiv. 4.; Calmet) seven miles north of Jericho. (Eusebius) --- The versions read differently. --- Ephron. The Masorets
have Ephraim. (Calmet) --- Protestants, "Ephraim, with the towns thereof." (Haydock) --- Josue (xv. 9.) places Mount Ephron
between Juda and Ephraim; and we find a town of the name, (1 Machabees v. 46.) but on the other side of the Jordan.
Him. Some think Abia, as Jeroboam survived him two years: but others, (Calmet) with greater probability, (Du Hamel)
suppose that the latter is here specified, and that he fell a victim to the divine wrath, as the prophet Ahias had foretold.
(Calmet) --- (Salien, the year of the world 3081.)
Works. Protestants, "sayings are written in the story of the prophets Iddo." (Haydock) --- Modross properly
means "researches," and was the title of the genealogical work of this prophet, from which this account is probably taken,
chap. xii. 15. (Calmet) --- The entire work is not extant. (Menochius)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Abia's reign: his victory over Jeroboam.
1 In *the eighteenth year of king Jeroboam, Abia reigned over Juda.
2 Three years he reigned in Jerusalem, and his mother's name was Michaia,
the daughter of Uriel, of Gabaa: and there was war between Abia and Jeroboam.
3 *And when Abia had begun battle, and had with him four hundred thousand
most valiant and chosen men, Jeroboam put his army in array against him, eight hundred thousand men, who were also chosen,
and most valiant for war.
4 And Abia stood upon Mount Semeron, which was in Ephraim, and said: Hear
me, O Jeroboam, and all Israel:
5 Do you not know that the Lord God of Israel gave to David the kingdom
over Israel for ever, to him and to his sons, by a covenant of salt?
6 And Jeroboam, the son of Nabat, the servant of Solomon, the son of David,
rose up: *and rebelled against his lord.
7 And there were gathered to him vain men, and children of Belial: and
they prevailed against Roboam, the son of Solomon: for Roboam was unexperienced, and of a fearful heart, and could not resist
8 And now you say that you are able to withstand the kingdom of the Lord,
which he possesseth by the sons of David, and you have a great multitude of people, and golden calves, which Jeroboam hath
made you for gods.
9 *And you have cast out the priests of the Lord, the sons of Aaron, and
the Levites: and you have made you priests, like all the nations of the earth: whosoever cometh and consecrateth his hand
with a bullock of the herd, and with seven rams, is made a priest of those who are no gods.
10 But the Lord is our God, whom we forsake not; and the priests, who minister
to the Lord, are the sons of Aaron, and the Levites are in their order.
11 And they offer holocausts to the Lord, every day, morning and evening,
and incense, made according to the ordinance of the law, and the loaves are set forth on a most clean table, and there is
with us the golden candlestick, and the lamps thereof, to be lighted always in the evening: for we keep the precepts of the
Lord, our God, whom you have forsaken.
12 Therefore, God is the leader in our army, and his priests, who sound
with trumpets, and resound against you: O children of Israel, fight not against the Lord, the God of your fathers, for it
is not good for you.
13 While he spoke these things, Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about
behind him. And while he stood facing the enemies, he encompassed Juda, who perceived it not, with his army.
14 And when Juda looked back, they saw the battle coming upon them, both
before and behind, and they cried to the Lord: and the priests began to sound with the trumpets.
15 And all the men of Juda shouted: and behold when they shouted, God terrified
Jeroboam, and all Israel that stood against Abia and Juda.
16 And the children of Israel fled before Juda, and the Lord delivered
them into their hand.
17 And Abia, and his people, slew them with a great slaughter, and there
fell wounded of Israel five hundred thousand valiant men.
18 And the children of Israel were brought down, at that time, and the
children of Juda were exceedingly strengthened, because they had trusted in the Lord, the God of their fathers.
19 And Abia pursued after Jeroboam, and took cities from him; Bethel, and
her daughters, and Jesana, with her daughters, Ephron also, and her daughters.
20 And Jeroboam was not able to resist any more, in the days of Abia: and
the Lord struck him, and he died.
21 But Abia, being strengthened in his kingdom, took fourteen wives: and
begot two and twenty sons, and sixteen daughters.
22 And the rest of the acts of Abia, and of his ways and works, are written
diligently in the book of Addo, the prophet.
1: Year of the World 3046, Year before Christ 958.;
3 Kings xv. 2.
3: 3 Kings xv. 7.; Year of the World 3047.
6: 3 Kings xi. 26.
9: 3 Kings xii. 31.