2 Paralipomenon xxi.
Notes & Commentary:
Azarias. The only difference between this and the former name is, that the younger brother's (Haydock) has u
at the end, (Calmet) Azrieu. Protestants and Septuagint, make no difference, which we should nevertheless expect. (Haydock)
--- Juda. Hebrew, "Israel." Septuagint, Syriac, &c., agree with the Vulgate editions, though most of the ancient
Latin manuscripts have Israel. Josephat ruled over the principal tribes. Yet it seems probable, from the versions, that the
Hebrew formerly read Juda.
Pensions. Hebrew, "precious things." Septuagint, "arms."
Sword. This cruel policy (Haydock) has been very common in the East. (Calmet) --- Israel. They had perhaps opposed
his impious plans, animated by his brethren. God presently chastised him with the rebellion of Idumea; and though Joram gained
a victory over Seir, (4 Kings viii. 21.) he was not able to reduce the nation, being called off by other wars, ver. 16. His
own subjects at Lobna, a Levitical city in Juda, also abandoned him. Dreadful evils were denounced in a letter from the prophet
Elias, who had been translated to paradise nine years before, and at last the honours of sepulture were denied to the wicked
Achab. It is supposed by Jezabel. She might be grand-daughter of Amri, chap. xxii. 2. The infamous Athalia is blamed
for most of the evils which her husband committed.
Lamp; heir and successor. (Calmet) (Psalm cxxxi. 17.)
Day, when the author lived. See 4 Kings viii. 20.
Fornication; idolatry. (Menochius) --- Hebrew, "and compelled Juda." Septuagint, "seduced." Syriac, "dissipated Juda."
(Calmet) --- He used every art of seduction and violence to introduce idolatry, to the ruin of his kingdom. (Haydock)
Elias. Le Clerc would read Eliseus. Grotius supposes that all passed in a dream. Others think that Elias had written
the letter before his removal from the conversation of men, some years before, foreseeing the impiety of Joram, and
leaving the letter with Eliseus, to be delivered unto him. (Menochius) (Junius) --- But the most common opinion is, that the
prophet wrote it in paradise, (Calmet) and sent it to the king by an angel, &c. (Seder. xvii.) (Bellarmine) (Tirinus)
--- Elias had been taken away in the 18th year of Josaphat, who reigned 25; so he shewed this special care of Joram and his
kingdom, so many years after his assumption. (Worthington) --- Thus the saints in heaven interest themselves in our defence,
2 Machabees xv. 11. (Haydock) --- Prophet. Hebrew, "And there came in him a writing of," &c. (Calmet)
Thee is not expressed in Hebrew, but it is in the Septuagint and the king was not only afflicted with illness, but
with the losses of his people and family. (Haydock)
By little. Hebrew, "by reason of the sickness, (Haydock) day by day," or in two years time, ver. 19. (Calmet) --- He
was probably ill so long. (Haydock) --- Agrippa and Antiochus were treated in the same manner, (Calmet) with a diarrhœa,
(Menochius) or dysentery, (Calmet) the vitals being corrupted. (Valesius 40.)
Philistines; who, it seems, had been obedient since the days of David. --- Ethiopians, who lay west of the Arabians,
from the Red Sea to the lower Egypt and the Nile, (Calmet) bordering on Madian. There was another Ethiopia to the south of
Joachaz, alias Ochozias, (Challoner) or Azarias, in Hebrew, chap. xxii. 1., and 6. (Calmet) --- The variation of names
seems to originate in the mistakes of transcribers, very frequently. If we found in some profane author, that Philip had only
one son, Ander-alex, left, and that this son, Alex-ander, succeeded him, we should readily allow that the first
syllables had been erroneously placed last, (Kennicott) as on this occasion aez-ieu stands for ieu-aez. Septuagint
has here Ochozias; as the other versions have also Ochozias, (chap. xxii. 6.) instead of Azrieu, (Haydock)
a name given to Ozias, king of Juda, when it belonged to the priests, as it here belongs to one of the captains, chap. xxiii.
1. Sometimes we find Aezie, 4 Kings ix. 16. Strange inconsistency! (Kennicott) See 4 Kings xiv. 21.
And. Protestants, "And it came to pass that, in process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out, by
reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases: And his people made no burning for him," &c., (Haydock) not that
the body was usually consumed, but no aromatical spices were burned near it, (Sanctius; Tirinus) as in the funeral of Asa,
chap. xvi. 14. (Calmet) --- The point is controverted. (Menochius)
Rightly. Septuagint, "unpraised." Hebrew, "without any satisfaction;" or, "he departed unregretted," oppressed with
illness, and odious to all. --- Kings. Joas, Achaz, Achab, and Manasses, were disgraced in like manner, after their
death. The Hebrews then shewed their resentment, without fear. The like custom prevailed in Egypt, and kept many within bounds.
No person could receive the usual honours of burial, if his accusers could maintain their charge against his character before
a court of above forty people, assembled for the purpose. Calumny was severely punished. But the kings themselves were to
stand their trial, while their corpse was placed in the porch of the monument, and the priest spoke their funeral oration.
The people testified their approbation or discontent, "and many of the kings have been deprived of a glorious and legal burial,
on account of the opposition of the multitude." (Diodorus i. and ii.) (Calmet)
Bible Text & Cross-references:
Joram's wicked reign: his punishment and death.
1 And *Josaphat slept with his fathers, and was buried with them in the
city of David: and Joram, his son, reigned in his stead.
2 And he had brethren, the sons of Josaphat, Azarias, and Jahiel, and
Zacharias, and Azaria, and Michael, and Saphatias; all these were the sons of Josaphat, king of Juda.
3 And their father gave them great gifts of silver, and of gold, and
pensions, with strong cities in Juda: but the kingdom he gave to Joram, because he was the eldest.
4 So Joram rose up over the kingdom of his father: and when he had established
himself, he slew all his brethren with the sword, and some of the princes of Israel.
5 Joram was two and thirty years old when he began to reign: and he reigned
eight years in Jerusalem.
6 *And he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, as the house of
Achab had done: for his wife was a daughter of Achab, and he did evil in the sight of the Lord.
7 But the Lord would not destroy the house of David: because of the covenant
which he had made with him: and because he had promised to give a lamp to him, and to his sons for ever.
8 In those days Edom revolted, *from being subject to Juda, and made
themselves a king.
9 And Joram went over with his princes, and all his cavalry with him,
and rose in the night, and defeated the Edomites who had surrounded him, and all the captains of his cavalry.
10 However, Edom revolted from being under the dominion of Juda unto
this day: at that time Lobna also revolted from being under his hand. For he had forsaken the Lord, the God of his fathers:
11 Moreover he built also high places in the cities of Juda, and he made
the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit fornication, and Juda to transgress.
12 And there was a letter brought him from Elias, the prophet, in which
it was written: Thus saith the Lord, the God of David, thy father: Because thou hast not walked in the ways of Josaphat, thy
father, nor in the ways of Asa, king of Juda,
13 But hast walked in the ways of the kings of Israel, and hast made
Juda, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to commit fornication, imitating the fornication of the house of Achab; moreover,
also, thou hast killed thy brethren, the house of thy father, better men than thyself;
14 Behold the Lord will strike thee with a great plague, with all thy
people, and thy children, and thy wives, and all thy substance:
15 And thou shalt be sick of a very grievous disease of thy bowels, till
thy vital parts come out by little and little every day.
16 And the Lord stirred up against Joram the spirit of the Philistines,
and of the Arabians, who border on the Ethiopians.
17 And they came up into the land of Juda, and wasted it, and they carried
away all the substance that was found in the king's house, his sons also, and his wives: so that there was no son left him
but Joachaz, who was the youngest.
18 And besides all this, the Lord struck him with an incurable disease
in his bowels.
19 And as day came after day, and time rolled on, two whole years passed:
then, after being wasted with a long consumption, so as to void his very bowels, his disease ended with his life. *And he
died of a most wretched illness, and the people did not make a funeral for him according to the manner of burning, as they
had done for his ancestors.
20 He was two and thirty years old when he began his reign, and he reigned
eight years in Jerusalem. And he walked not rightly, and they buried him in the city of David: but not in the sepulchres of
1: Year of the World 3115, Year before Christ 889.; 3 Kings xxii. 15.
6: 4 Kings viii. 16.
19: Year of the World 3119, Year before Christ 885.